XMLmind Ebook Compiler Manual

Hussein Shafie

XMLmind Software

35 rue Louis Leblanc,
78120 Rambouillet,
France,
Phone: +33 (0)9 52 80 80 37,
Web: www.xmlmind.com/ebookc
Email: ebookc-support@xmlmind.com

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Examples

List of Equations

Part I. User guide

Chapter 1. What is XMLmind Ebook Compiler?

XMLmind Ebook Compiler (ebookc for short) is a free, open source tool which can turn a set of HTML pages into a self-contained ebook. Supported output formats are: EPUB, Web Help, PDF[1], RTF, WML, DOCX (MS-Word) and ODT (OpenOffice/LibreOffice)[2].

Overview of XMLmind Ebook Compiler

You can of course use ebookc to create books having a simple structure like novels, but this tool also has all the features needed to create large, complex, reference manuals:

  • Builds on topic-oriented structuring like DITA or DocBook 5.1. (Each source HTML page is expected to deal with a single topic.)
  • Automatic generation of global and local table of contents.
  • Automatic generation of a “back-of-the-book index”.
  • Automatic numbering of parts, chapters, appendices, sections, figures, tables, examples and equations.
  • Automatic creation of links between some user-specified book divisions.
  • Automatic generation of text in cross-references.
  • Footnote support.
  • Conditional processing (also called profiling).
  • Built-in support of XInclude (allows reuse of content at different locations in the book).

Being based on HTML, ebookc relies on CSS to create nicely formatted books and this, even for output formats like PDF and DOCX which are not directly related to HTML and CSS.

If you consider writing technical documentation in DITA or DocBook you should really first take a look at ebookc (see Chapter 2. Primer). Being based on HTML and CSS, ebookc is much easier to learn, use and customize. Moreover you can create with it ebooks which are more interactive (audio, video, slide shows, multiple-choice questions, etc) than those created using DITA or DocBook.

Chapter 2. Primer

A book is an assembly of HTML pages

The basic idea is simple. You author a set of HTML pages and then you create an ebook specification assigning a role —part, chapter, section, appendix, etc— to each page. Example: primer/book1.ebook:

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<book xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      href="titlepage.html">
  <frontmatter>
    <toc/>
  </frontmatter>

  <chapter href="ch1.html"/>

  <chapter href="ch2.html"/>

  <appendix href="a1.html"/>
</book>

The HTML pages comprising a book may contain anything you want including CSS styles and links between the pages (e.g. <a href="ch2.html#fig1">). However make sure that this content is valid XHTML[3].

Once the ebook specification has been created, you can compile it using XMLmind Ebook Compiler and generate EPUB, Web Help, PDF[4], RTF, ODT, DOCX[5], etc. Examples:

ebookc book1.ebook out/book1.epub

ebookc book1.ebook out/book1.pdf

“Rich”, numbered, chapter titles

If you look at out/book1.pdf, you'll see that chapter and appendix titles are numbered and that these titles are copied verbatim from the html/head/title of the corresponding input HTML page.

It's of course possible to specify how book components should be numbered (if at all). It's also possible to replace the plain text titles of chapters and appendices by “rich” titles[6] by adding ebook:head child elements to the book divisions. Example: primer/book2.ebook:

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<book xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      href="titlepage.html" appendixnumber="A%1.">
  <frontmatter>
    <toc/>
  </frontmatter>

  <chapter href="ch1.html"/>

  <chapter href="ch2.html">
    <head>
      <title><html:em>Rich</html:em>” title of 
      second chapter</title>
    </head>
  </chapter>

  <appendix href="a1.html"/>
</book>

The content of a ebook:head element specified this way is added to the html/head of the corresponding output HTML page, except for the ebook:title element which replaces html/head/title.

Assembling a book division rather than referencing an external file

We have already seen that it's possible to add a ebook:head child to elements like book[7], chapter, appendix, etc. Likewise, it's also possible to add a ebook:body child to any book division. Example: primer/book3.ebook:

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<book xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      appendixnumber="A%1">
  <head>
    <title>Title of this sample book</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <content href="titlepage.html"/>
  </body>

  <frontmatter>
    <toc/>
  </frontmatter>

  <chapter href="ch1.html"/>

  <chapter href="ch2.html">
    <head>
      <title><html:em>Rich</html:em>” title of
      second chapter</title>
    </head>
  </chapter>

  <appendix href="a1.html"/>
</book>

In the above example, the content of the html/body element of file titlepage.html is “pulled” and added to the book. Several ebook:content child elements are allowed in an ebook:body element.

Controlling generated page names

When you generate multi-page HTML (e.g. Web Help) out of an ebook specification, it may be important to specify the names of the generated pages. It may also be useful to group several consecutive book divisions into the same output page.

This is specified using the pagename and samepage attributes of any book division. Example: primer/book4.ebook:

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<book xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      appendixnumber="A%1">
  <head>
    <title>Title of this sample book</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <content href="titlepage.html"/>
  </body>

  <frontmatter>
    <toc/>
    <section href="intro.html" pagename="the introduction"/>
  </frontmatter>

  <chapter href="ch1.html">
    <section href="s1.html">
      <section href="s2.html" samepage="true"/>
    </section>
  </chapter>

  <chapter href="ch2.html">
    <head>
      <title><html:em>Rich</html:em>” title of
      second chapter</title>
    </head>
  </chapter>

  <appendix href="a1.html"/>
</book>

By default, each book division is created in its own file and the name of this file comes the href attribute of the book division. Web Help example:

ebookc -f webhelp book4.ebook out/book4
  • Without attribute pagename="the introduction", the introduction would have been generated in file out/book4/intro.html. With this attribute, the introduction is generated in file "out/book4/the introduction.html".
  • Without attribute samepage="true", the second section would have been generated in its own file out/book4/s2.html. With this attribute, the second section is appended to file out/book4/s1.html, also containing first section.

But wait a minute… HTML has not enough elements to write books

That's right, some semantic elements like admonitions, footnotes, etc, found in larger XML vocabularies like DITA or DocBook are missing from XHTML5. However, it's easy to emulate these missing elements by defining semantic values for the class attribute of standard HTML elements (typically span and div).

XMLmind Ebook Compiler has special support for the following semantic class names:

Semantic class Description
<figure class="role-equation"> A “displayed equation” having a title (figcaption).
<figure class="role-example"> An example —for example a code snippet— having a title (figcaption).
<pre class="role-listing-c-1"> A code listing, possibly featuring line numbering and syntax coloring (class name suffix "-c-1" means: C language, first line number is 1).
<blockquote class="role-note"> Admonitions. Supported class names are: role-note, role-attention, role-caution, role-danger, role-fastpath, role-important, role-notice, role-remember, role-restriction, role-tip, role-trouble, role-warning.
<span class="role-footnote"> A short footnote, inline with the rest of the text.
<a class="role-footnote-ref" href="#fn1"> A call to footnote "fn1".
<div class="role-footnote" id="fn1"> Footnote "fn1".
<a class="role-index-term">Cat</a> An index term. May be much more elaborate than the very simple example shown here.

Excerpts from primer/semantic_classes.html added as a second appendix to primer/book5.ebook:

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...
<figure class="role-equation">
  <figcaption>Figure containing
  an equation</figcaption>
  <div>
    <math display="block"
          xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <mrow>
        <mi>E</mi>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mrow>
          <mi>m</mi>
          <mo></mo>
          <msup>
            <mi>c</mi>
            <mn>2</mn>
          </msup>
        </mrow>
      </mrow>
    </math>
  </div>
</figure>
...
<p>Short footnote<span class="role-footnote">Content of 
short footnote.</span>.
...
<p>Simplest index term<a class="role-index-term">Cat</a>. 
Other index term<a class="role-index-term">Cat<span
class="role-term">Siamese</span></a>...</p>
...

Because primer/semantic_classes.html contains figures, tables and index terms, the following book divisions have also been added to primer/book5.ebook:

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...
  <frontmatter>
    <toc/>
    <lof/>
    <lot/>
    <lox/>
    <loe/>
    <section href="intro.html" pagename="the introduction"/>
...
  <backmatter>
    <index/>
  </backmatter>
...

<lof/> specifies that a List of Figures is to be generated as a front matter. <lot/> means: List of Tables. <lox/> means: List of Examples. <loe/> means: List of Equations.

Nicely formatted books

If you compile primer/book5.ebook, you'll get a very dull result whatever the output format:

ebookc -f webhelp book5.ebook out/book5

ebookc book5.ebook out/book5.pdf

This is caused by the fact that all the source HTML pages referenced by book5.ebook do not specify any CSS style.

It's a good practice to keep it this way because this allows separation of presentation and content. However, you'll want to create nice books, so the simplest and cleanest is to add CSS styles to the ebook specification (and not to each input HTML page).

If you do it like this:

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<book xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      appendixnumber="A%1">
  <head>
    <title>Title of this sample book</title>
    <html:link href="css/styles.css" rel="stylesheet"
               type="text/css"/>
  </head>
  ...

The above specification would not work because only the title page would get styled.

You need to use a headcommon element for that. The child elements of headcommon are automatically copied the html/head of all output HTML pages. Excerpts from primer/book6.ebook:

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<book xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      appendixnumber="A%1">
  <headcommon>
    <html:link href="css/styles.css" rel="stylesheet"
               type="text/css"/>
    <html:link href="css/star.svg" rel="resource"
               type="image/svg+xml"/>
  </headcommon>

  <head>
    <title>Title of this sample book</title>
    <html:style>
div.role-book-title-div {
    text-align: center;
}

h1.role-book-title {
    margin: 4em 0;
    padding-bottom: 0;
    border-bottom-style: none;
}
    </html:style>
  </head>
  ...

In the above example:

  • Element <html:link href="css/star.svg"> is needed because "css/styles.css" references this file. Notice attribute rel="resource".
  • Element ebook:head may contain, not only ebook:title, but also any of the HTML elements allowed in html/head, namely style, script, meta, link. This facility is used here to give a specific style to the title page.
  • Unlike <blockquote class="role-note"> for example, which is found in the source HTML page, <div class="role-book-title-div"> and <h1 class="role-book-title"> are elements generated by XMLmind Ebook Compiler.

    Knowing about these elements is required to be able to give nice looks to the generated book. These elements and their class names are all listed in template/template.css, with suggested CSS styles for some of these elements.

What about output formats like PDF, RTF, DOCX?

The CSS styles specified in the ebook specification and in the source HTML pages are also used when generating output formats like PDF, RTF, DOCX, even if these formats are not directly related to HTML and CSS.

However in this case, CSS 2.1 support is partial. While there are no restrictions related to the use of CSS selectors, only the most basic CSS properties are supported. For example, generated content (e.g. :before) and floats are not supported at all.

There are two ways to work around this limitation:

  1. Use simpler CSS styles when targeting output formats like PDF, RTF, DOCX. This is done using @media screen and @media print[8] rules. This is done in primer/css/styles.css:
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    blockquote.role-warning {
        font-size: 12px;
        background-color: #e1f5fe;
        color: #0288d1;
        padding: 12px 24px 12px 60px;
        margin: 16px 0;
    }
    
    blockquote.role-warning:before {
        float: left;
        content: url(star.svg);
        width: 16px;
        height: 16px;
        margin-left: -36px;
    }
    
    @media print {
        /* Floating generated content not supported.
           No need to leave room for the admonition icon. */
        blockquote.role-warning {
            padding-left: 24px;
            border-left: solid 5px #0288d1;
        }
    }
  2. Some features like watermark images or admonition icons are directly implemented the XSLT stylesheets which generate XSL-FO[9]. Example:
    ebookc -p use-note-icon yes book6.ebook out/book6.pdf
    
    ebookc -f webhelp book6.ebook out/book6

    Without XSLT stylesheet parameter use-note-icon=yes, admonitions in out/book6.pdf would have no icons.

    Such parameter is not needed when generating Web Help (like EPUB, an HTML+CSS-based output format) because admonition icons are specified in CSS stylesheet primer/css/styles.css.

Creating links between book divisions

An book is specified as an assembly of source HTML pages. If you want to reuse some of these HTML pages to author other books, it is recommended to avoid creating links (e.g. <a href="ch2.html#fig1">) between these pages.

Fortunately, there is a simple way to create links between book divisions, which is using the ebook:related element. Excerpts from primer/book7.ebook:

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  ...
  <chapter href="ch1.html" xml:id="ch1">
    <related ids="ch1 ch2 a1" relation="See also"/>

    <section href="s1.html">
      <section href="s2.html" samepage="true"/>
    </section>
  </chapter>

  <chapter href="ch2.html" xml:id="ch2">
    <head>
      <title><html:em>Rich</html:em>” title of
      second chapter</title>
    </head>

    <related ids="ch1 ch2 a1" relation="See also"/>
  </chapter>

  <appendix href="a1.html" xml:id="a1">
    <related ids="ch1 ch2 a1" relation="See also"/>
  </appendix>
  ...

See links automatically generated in first chapter, second chapter and first appendix by running for example:

ebookc -f webhelp book7.ebook out/book7

Conditionally excluding some content from the generated book

This feature called conditional processing or profiling has many uses, the most basic one being to include or exclude some content depending on the chosen output format. For example, some source HTML pages may contain interactive content (e.g. a feedback form) and this interactive content simply cannot be rendered in PDF or DOCX.

In order to conditionally exclude some content from the generated book, you must first “mark” the conditional sections using data-* attributes. Excerpts from primer/book8.ebook:

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  ...
  <backmatter data-output-format="docx odt pdf rtf wml">
    <index/>
  </backmatter>
  ...

Excerpts from primer/intro.html:

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...
<blockquote class="role-tip"
            data-output-format="epub html webhelp">
  <p>This document is also available in PDF ... format.</p>
</blockquote>
...

You may specify one or more conditional processing data-* attribute on any element. Choose the attribute names you want. Such conditional processing data-* attribute may contain one or more values separated by space characters. Choose the attribute values you want.

If you generate a single HTML page by running:

ebookc book8.ebook out/book8_no_profile.html

the marked sections will not be excluded because XMLmind Ebook Compiler does not associate any special meaning to attribute data-output-format. However if you run:

ebookc -p profile.output-format html book8.ebook out/book8.html

then file out/book8.html will not have an index. Option "-p profile.output-format html" reads as: unless an element has no data-output-format attribute or has a data-output-format attribute containing "html", exclude this element from the generated content.

If you run:

ebookc -p profile.output-format pdf book8.ebook out/book8.pdf

then the introduction will not contain the tip about the availability of the document in PDF format.

Chapter 3. Getting started

Installing XMLmind Ebook Compiler

How to install XMLmind Ebook Compiler is explained in Chapter 5. Installation.

Writing an ebook specification

You have learned in Chapter 2. Primer:

You'll find a template for your ebook specification in ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/template/template.ebook. The recommended extension for these files is ".ebook".

Writing a CSS stylesheet for your ebooks

If you want your ebook to look good, you'll have to specify a number of CSS styles for it as explained in Nicely formatted books. You'll find a CSS stylesheet template in ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/template/template.css.

Alternatively, you may use the XMLmind CSS stylesheet ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/css/xmlmind_ebook.css as is for your own ebooks. You may also use the XMLmind stylesheet as a starting point for developing your own CSS stylesheet. In both cases, make sure to add the following links to the headcommon element of your root book element:

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<headcommon>
  <html:link href="css/xmlmind_ebook.css" rel="stylesheet"
             type="text/css"/>
  <html:link href="css/icons/" rel="resource"
             type="inode/directory"/>
</headcommon>

Compiling an ebook specification

An ebook specification is compiled using a command-line tool called ebookc. Run ebookc_install_dir/bin/ebookc.bat on Windows and ebookc_install_dir/bin/ebookc on the Mac and on Linux.

Example, convert this manual to EPUB:

C:\ebookc_1_0_2\docsrc\manual> ..\bin\ebookc.bat manual.ebook out\manual.epub

Example, convert this manual to Web Help (output directory being "out\manual_webhelp\"):

C:\ebookc_1_0_2\docsrc\manual> ..\bin\ebookc.bat -f webhelp¬
  manual.ebook out\manual_webhelp

Example, convert this manual to PDF using a copy of RenderX XEP installed in "C:\xep\":

C:\ebookc_1_0_2\docsrc\manual> ..\bin\ebookc.bat¬
  -xep C:\xep\xep.bat¬
  manual.ebook out\manual.pdf

Example, convert this manual to DOCX using a copy of XMLmind XSL-FO Converter installed in "C:\xfc\":

C:\ebookc_1_0_2\docsrc\manual> ..\bin\ebookc.bat¬
  -xfc C:\xfc\bin\fo2rtf.bat¬
  manual.ebook out\manual.docx

To avoid specifying options -xep and -xfc each time you run ebookc, the simplest if to create once for all an ebookc.options file in the ebookc user preferences directory. This directory is:

  • $HOME/.ebookc/ on Linux.
  • $HOME/Library/Application Support/XMLmind/ebookc/ on the Mac.
  • %APPDATA%\XMLmind\ebookc\ on Windows.

Your ebookc.options file would contain:

-xep C:\xep\xep.bat
-xfc C:\xfc\bin\fo2rtf.bat

Chapter 4. Handy features

4.1. Automatic resource management

XMLmind Ebook Compiler automatically copies all the resources referenced by the ebook specification and the input HTML pages to the output directory in order to create a self-contained deliverable. Creating self-contained deliverables is generally desirable and for some output formats, like EPUB, this is really required.

For example, if you run (single-page HTML output format):

ebookc doc.ebook out/doc.html

all the resources of doc.ebook are copied to out/doc_files/.

Other example, if you run:

ebookc -f webhelp doc.ebook out/webhelp/

all the resources of doc.ebook are copied to out/webhelp/_res/.

What is a resource?

By default, XMLmind Ebook Compiler considers that any file [10] referenced by the ebook specification or an input HTML page using a relative URI is a resource. This is generally the case of images, audio and video files, CSS stylesheets, scripts files referenced by the ebook specification and the input HTML pages.

In this example, image "cc-by-sa.png" is obviously a resource and file "creativecommons.html" not being an input HTML page, is also considered to be a resource:

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<p>All the above tutorials are licensed under the
<a href="creativecommons.html"><img src="cc-by-sa.png"
alt="CC BY-SA"/>Creative Commons License</a>,
which means that everyone is welcome to distribute, modify, translate, etc,
any of them.</p>

How to specify "not a resource; do not copy it and keep its relative URI as is"?

The automatic resource management of ebookc may be turned off globally by setting option proc.ignoreresources to "true".

If you want to specify that only some of the resources of an ebook are external and as such, should not be processed by ebookc, please use

  • value "external-resource" for standard attribute rel (HTML link elements have this attribute);
  • proprietary attribute data-external-resource for elements like img which do not have attribute rel.

Example:

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<p>All the above tutorials are licensed under the
<a href="creativecommons.html"
rel="external-resource"><img src="cc-by-sa.png" alt="CC BY-SA"
data-external-resource=""/>Creative Commons License</a>,
which means that everyone is welcome to distribute, modify, translate, etc,
any of them.</p>

In the above example, files "cc-by-sa.png" and "creativecommons.html" are not processed as resources.

Option externalresourcebase may be used to specify an absolute or relative URI to be prepended to external resources having a relative URI. Example: -p proc.externalresourcebase "../../samples/".

How to specify "this is a resource too; copy it to the output directory"?

By default, XMLmind Ebook Compiler considers that any file referenced by the ebook specification or an input HTML page using an absolute URI is not a resource. Example:

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<p>All the above tutorials are licensed under the
<a href="https://creativecommons.org/creativecommons.html">
<img src="https://creativecommons.org/cc-by-sa.png"
alt="CC BY-SA"/>Creative Commons License</a>,
which means that everyone is welcome to distribute, modify, translate, etc,
any of them.</p>

In the above example, files "https://creativecommons.org/creativecommons.html" and "https://creativecommons.org/cc-by-sa.png" are not processed as resources.

If you want to specify that some files having absolute URIs are in fact resources and as such, should be processed by ebookc, please use

  • value "resource" for standard attribute rel (HTML link elements have this attribute);
  • proprietary attribute data-resource for elements like img which do not have attribute rel.

Example:

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<p>All the above tutorials are licensed under the
<a href="https://creativecommons.org/creativecommons.html"
rel="resource">
<img src="https://creativecommons.org/cc-by-sa.png"
data-resource="" alt="CC BY-SA"/>Creative Commons License</a>,
which means that everyone is welcome to distribute, modify, translate, etc,
any of them.</p>

In the above example, files "https://creativecommons.org/creativecommons.html" and "https://creativecommons.org/cc-by-sa.png" are processed as resources.

Sub-resources

In the following example, files "styles.css", "creativecommons.html" and "cc-by-sa.png" are automatically processed as resources:

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...
<head>
  ...
  <link href="css/styles.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
</head>
...
<p>All the above tutorials are licensed under the
<a href="creativecommons.html"><img src="cc-by-sa.png"
alt="CC BY-SA"/>Creative Commons License</a>,
which means that everyone is welcome to distribute, modify, translate, etc,
any of them.</p>

Moreover, if file "creativecommons.html" contains XHTML —that is, can be parsed by XMLmind Ebook Compiler— its resources are processed too as if "creativecommons.html" were an input HTML page.

This is not the case for resource "styles.css". The resources found in a CSS stylesheet (e.g. file "texture.png" in "background-image: url(images/texture.png);") are not automatically detected and processed[11] by XMLmind Ebook Compiler.

The ebook author must explicitly specify the sub-resources of CSS stylesheets using extra link elements in the headcommon of the ebook specification or in the head of an input HTML page. Example:

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...
<head>
  ...
  <link href="css/styles.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
  <link href="css/images/" rel="resource" type="inode/directory" />
</head>
...
<p>All the above tutorials are licensed under the
<a href="creativecommons.html"><img src="cc-by-sa.png"
alt="CC BY-SA"/>Creative Commons License</a>,
which means that everyone is welcome to distribute, modify, translate, etc,
any of them.</p>

Notice attribute rel="resource" which here just makes clear the purpose of this link. Also notice type="inode/directory" which is needed because "css/images/" is a folder and not a simple file.

4.2. Conditional processing

XMLmind Ebook Compiler can conditionally exclude some contents found in the ebook specification or in the input HTML pages. To put this feature into use, the ebook author must:

  1. Specify one or more data-* attributes on the elements to be conditionally excluded. Examples: data-edition="complete", data-output-format="docx odt pdf rtf wml".

    These data-* attributes are often called profiling attributes because they are used to define several profiles for the same document.

    It's up to the ebook author to choose the names and allowed values for the profiling attributes.

    The ebook author may allow only a single value for a given profiling attribute. Example: attribute data-edition may contain only a single value, one of "complete" or "abridged".

    Or, on the contrary, the ebook author may allow a given profiling attribute to contain several values separated by space characters. Example: attribute data-output-format may contain one or more of "docx", "epub", "frameset", "html ", "odt", "pdf", "rtf", "webhelp", "wml".

  2. Pass one or more profile.* parameters to the ebookc command-line option. These profile.* parameters must match the chosen profiling attributes. Example: -p profile.edition abridged -p profile.output-format pdf.

    Note that unless you pass a profile.* parameter, the corresponding data-* attribute is not given any special meaning by XMLmind Ebook Compiler. For example, without -p profile.output-format VALUE, attribute data-output-format is considered to be just an ordinary attribute.

How some elements are conditionally excluded by XMLmind Ebook Compiler is best explained by an example:

Example 4-1. Example of conditional processing
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<p>See YouTube demo:</p>

<p data-edition="complete" data-output-format="epub frameset html webhelp">
<iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/6MgZBZ4XHzU"
height="360" width="640"></iframe></p>

<p data-edition="complete" data-output-format="docx odt pdf rtf wml">
<img src="images/YouTube_play_icon.svg" alt="..."/> 
<a href="https://youtu.be/6MgZBZ4XHzU"
target="_blank">https://youtu.be/6MgZBZ4XHzU</a>.</p>

See YouTube demo:

YouType Play icon https://youtu.be/6MgZBZ4XHzU.

For an element to be excluded, suffice for a single profiling attribute to be “excluded”. A profiling attribute data-X is “excluded” if none of the values it contains matches a value contained in the profile.X parameter passed to ebookc.

For example, with -p profile.edition complete -p profile.output-format pdf, the embedded video

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<p data-edition="complete" data-output-format="epub frameset html webhelp">
<iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/6MgZBZ4XHzU"
height="360" width="640"></iframe></p>

is excluded because despite the fact that data-edition="complete" is “included”, data-output-format="epub frameset html webhelp" is “excluded”.

Other examples, if you pass ebookc

  • no profile.* parameter at all, the above example will contain both the embedded video and the YouTube link to the video.
  • -p profile.edition abridged, the above example will contain neither the embedded video nor the YouTube link to the video.
  • -p profile.edition complete, the above example will contain both the embedded video and the YouTube link to the video.
  • -p profile.output-format epub, the above example will contain just the embedded video.
  • -p profile.output-format pdf, the above example will contain just the YouTube link to the video.
  • -p profile.edition abridged -p profile.output-format pdf, the above example will contain neither the embedded video nor the YouTube link to the video.
  • -p profile.edition complete -p profile.output-format pdf, the above example will contain just the YouTube link to the video.
  • -p profile.edition complete -p profile.output-format "epub pdf", the above example will contain both the embedded video and the YouTube link to the video.

4.3. Transclusion

XMLmind Ebook Compiler has good support for transclusion, that is the ability to include contents found in an input HTML page into another input HTML page. This feature is implemented using a standard mechanism called XInclude.

Example, "page1.html" contains paragraph having id="notice":

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<p id="notice" class="important">Interest rates are subject
to fluctuation without notice.</p>

Because this paragraph has an id, it's possible to include it in "page2.html":

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<p>Paragraph found in page2.html.</p>

<xi:include href="page1.html" xpointer="notice" 
  xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" />[12]

<p>Other paragraph found in page2.html.</p>

The corresponding output HTML page will then contain:

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<p>Paragraph found in page2.html.</p>

<p id="notice" class="important">Interest rates are subject
to fluctuation without notice.</p>

<p>Other paragraph found in page2.html.</p>

Note that transclusion works fine not only between two input HTML pages, but also:

  • within the same input HTML page (see example below),
  • between two ebook specifications,
  • within the same ebook specification.

However transclusion does not work between an input HTML page and an ebook specification.

Example 4-2. Transclusion works fine within the same input HTML page
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<p id="notice" class="important">Interest rates are subject
to fluctuation without notice.</p>

... ELSEWHERE in page1.html ...

<xi:include href="" xpointer="notice" 
  xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" />

Notice href="" to refer to the same file.

Transclusion is most often used between the input HTML pages and a “utility HTML page” which is not an input HTML page but which contains useful “snippets”.

Example, excerpts from "snippets.html":

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<ul>
  <li><span id="ebookc">XMLmind Ebook Compiler</span>.</li>

  <li><span id="xxe">XMLmind XML Editor</span>.</li>

  <li><a href="http://www.xmlmind.com/" id="xmlmind"
         target="_blank">XMLmind</a>.</li>
</ul>

Now, including snippets in an input HTML page:

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<p><xi:include href="snippets.html" xpointer="ebookc"
xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" /> is free, open source software
developed by <xi:include href="snippets.html" xpointer="xmlmind"
xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" />.</p>

<p><xi:include href="snippets.html" xpointer="xxe"
xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" /> is a commercial product
developed by <xi:include href="snippets.html" xpointer="xmlmind"
xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" />.</p>

Part II. Reference

Chapter 5. Installation

System requirements

Make sure to have a Java™ 1.6+ runtime installed on your machine. To check this, please open a command window and type "java -version" followed by Enter. You should get something looking like this:

C:\> java -version
java version "1.8.0_144"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_144-b01)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.144-b01, mixed mode)

Installation

Simply unzip ebookc-X_Y_Z.zip in any directory.

After that, you can run command-line utility ebookc by simply executing ebookc_install_dir/bin/ebookc.bat (ebookc_install_dir/bin/ebookc on the Mac and on Linux).

C:\> mkdir XMLmind
C:\> cd XMLmind
C:\XMLmind> unzip ebookc-1_0_2.zip
C:\XMLmind> dir ebookc-1_0_2
... <DIR> bin
... <DIR> doc
... <DIR> docsrc
... <DIR> LEGAL
...
C:\XMLmind> ebookc-1_0_2\bin\ebookc.bat
ebookc: ERROR: Usage: ebookc [option]* in_ebook_file out_file_or_directory
...

Contents of the installation directory

bin/, bin/ebookc, bin/ebookc.bat
Contains the ebookc command-line utility. Use shell script ebookc on Linux and on the Mac. Use ebookc.bat on Windows.
doc/, doc/index.html
Contains the documentation of XMLmind Ebook Compiler.
docsrc/, docsrc/manual.xml
Contains the documentation of XMLmind Ebook Compiler in ebookc format. File docsrc/manual.ebook contains an ebook specification. You may want to use this sample ebook specification to experiment with the ebookc command-line utility.
LEGAL/, LEGAL.txt
Contains legal information about XMLmind Ebook Compiler and about third-party components used in XMLmind Ebook Compiler.
lib/*.jar
All the Java™ class libraries needed to run XMLmind Ebook Compiler. For example, lib/ebookc.jar contain the code of XMLmind Ebook Compiler.
plus/
This directory is present only in the case of the ebookc-X_Y_Z-plus-fop.zip distribution. It contains most recent Apache FOP (including hyphenation and MathML support). This XSL-FO processor is automatically declared and thus, ready to be used to generate PDF or PostScript.
schema/
Contains a W3C XML schema and a Schematron which may be used to check an ebook specification for validity. File schema/catalog.xml contains an XML catalog which points to these schemas.
src/, src/build.xml
Contains the Java™ source code of XMLmind Ebook Compiler. src/build.xml is an ant build file which allows to rebuild lib/ebookc.jar.
whc_template/
Contains the template directory of XMLmind Web Help Compiler.
xsl/
Contains the XSLT 2.0 stylesheets used to convert ebook specifications to a variety of formats.

Chapter 6. Content of a source HTML page

6.1. Valid XHTML5

Your source HTML pages must contain valid[13] XHTML (“plain HTML” cannot be parsed by ebookc) and preferably valid XHTML5, because ebookc anyway generates XHTML5 markup.

The html root element must have 1 head and 1 body child elements. The head child element must have 1 title child element.

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
    <title>...</title>
  </head>
  <body>
  ...
  </body>
</html>

If you plan to use XMLmind XHTML Editor (or its superset, XMLmind XML Editor) as your ebook authoring tool, do not forget to add attribute class="role-ebook-page" to the html root element of your source HTML pages. XMLmind XHTML Editor detects this attribute and this will cause the editor to replace its stock "XHTML" menus and toolbars by extended "XHTML" menus and toolbars.

6.2. Headings

You may use headings (h1, h2, h3, etc) normally, without worrying about the role as a book division (chapter, section, etc) that will be given to your input HTML page.

By default, book attribute adjustuserheadings="true" specifies that the levels of your headings are to be automatically adjusted to make them consistent with the level of the title of the book division.

Example, input HTML page contains:

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<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
    <title>Troubleshooting</title>
  </head>
  <body>
  <h1>Symptoms</h1>
  ...
  <h2>Intermittent symptoms</h2>
  ...
  <h1>Most common causes</h1>
  ...  
  </body>
</htm>

The above input HTML is referenced as a subsection of a chapter in the book. Therefore the title of the subsection is represented by an h3 element. The output HTML page containing the subsection then looks like:

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<section class="role-section2">
  <h3 class="role-section2-title">Troubleshooting</h3>  
  <h4>Symptoms</h4>
  ...
  <h5>Intermittent symptoms</h5>
  ...
  <h4>Most common causes</h4>
  ...

If you want to prevent this from happening, please add attribute adjustuserheadings="false" to your root book element or add a class attribute to some or all of your headings. A heading having a class attribute is understood by XMLmind Ebook Compiler as being “not an ordinary heading which could be modified”.

6.3. Examples

An example is a figure element which has a class attribute containing "role-example". This kind of figure is listed in the "List of Examples" (that is, book element lox) only if it also has a figcaption child element. Example:

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<figure class="role-example">
  <figcaption>"Hello World" program in the C language</figcaption>
  <pre>/* Hello World */
#include &lt;stdio.h&ght;

int main()
{
    printf("Hello World\n");
    return 0;
}</pre>
</figure>

is rendered as:

Example 6-1. "Hello World" program in the C language
/* Hello World */
#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
    printf("Hello World\n");
    return 0;
}

Program listings

A program listing can have its lines automatically numbered and/or can feature syntax highlighting. This is done by adding "role-listing-NUMBER-LANGUAGE" (or "role-listing-LANGUAGE-NUMBER") to the class attribute of a pre element.

  • NUMBER, a strictly positive integer, specifies the number of the first line of the program listing. This parameter may be omitted if you don't want automatic line numbering.
  • LANGUAGE, one of "bourne", "c", "cmake", "cpp", "csharp", "css21", "delphi", "ini", "java", "javascript", "lua", "m2" (Modula 2), "perl", "php", "python", "ruby", "sql1999", "sql2003", "sql92", "tcl", "upc" (Unified Parallel C), "html", "xml", specifies the programming language or markup language used in the program listing. This parameter may be omitted if you don't want syntax highlighting.

Example:

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<pre class="role-listing-1-c">/* Hello World */
#include &lt;stdio.h&ght;

int main()
{
    printf("Hello World\n");
    return 0;
}</pre>

is rendered as:

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/* Hello World */
#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
    printf("Hello World\n");
    return 0;
}

6.4. Equations

An example is a figure element which has a class attribute containing "role-equation". This kind of figure is listed in the "List of Equations" (that is, book element loe) only if it also has a figcaption child element. Example:

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<figure class="role-equation">
  <figcaption>Special relativity</figcaption>
  <div>
    <math display="block"
          xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
      <mrow>
        <mrow>
          <mi>t</mi>
          <mo></mo>
        </mrow>
        <mo>=</mo>
        <mrow>
          <mi>t</mi>
          <mo>&#x2062;</mo>
          <mfrac>
            <mn>1</mn>
            <msqrt>
              <mrow>
                <mn>1</mn>
                <mo>-</mo>
                <mfrac>
                  <msup>
                    <mi>v</mi>
                    <mn>2</mn>
                  </msup>
                  <msup>
                    <mi>c</mi>
                    <mn>2</mn>
                  </msup>
                </mfrac>
              </mrow>
            </msqrt>
          </mfrac>
        </mrow>
      </mrow>
    </math>
  <div>
</figure>

is rendered as:

Equation 6-1. Special relativity
t = t 1 1 - v 2 c 2

Few web browsers natively support MathML, so it's recommended to add a link to the MathJax script to your input HTML pages containing equations[14]. This typically done as follows:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
    <title>...</title>

    <script async="async"
      src="https://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/¬
MathJax.js?config=MML_CHTML"
      type="text/javascript"></script>

  </head>
  ...

6.5. Admonitions

An admonition, that is, a warning, a tip, a notice, etc, is a blockquote element which has a class attribute containing "role-ADMONITION", where role-ADMONITION is one of the following class names:

Table 6-1. Admonition classes
Class name Description
role-note This is just a note.
role-attention Please pay extra attention to this note.
role-caution Care is required when proceeding.
role-danger Important! Be aware of this before doing anything else.
role-fastpath This note will speed you on your way.
role-important This note is important.
role-notice Indicates a potential situation which, if not avoided, might result in an undesirable result or state.
role-remember Don't forget to do what this note says.
role-restriction You can't do what this note says.
role-tip This is a fine little tip.
role-trouble Provides information about how to remedy a trouble situation.
role-warning Indicates a potentially hazardous situation.

Example:

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<blockquote class="role-important">
  <h4>How to check your oil</h4>
  <p>You need to check your car’s oil before any long trip
  to avoid major damage.</p>
  <p>The process for how to check your oil is simple and involves
  using the dip stick to see levels and test quality.</p>
</blockquote>

is rendered as:

How to check your oil

You need to check your car’s oil before any long trip to avoid major damage.

The process for how to check your oil is simple and involves using the dip stick to see levels and test quality.

6.6. Footnotes

Simple footnotes

This first and simplest form for a footnote is a span element which has a class attribute containing "role-footnote".

Example:

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<p>Yoko<span class="role-footnote">Written with kanji <i>ko</i>, meaning
"child". The syllable <i>ko</i> is not generally found at the end of
masculine names.</span> is a Japanese feminine given name.</p>

is rendered as:

Yoko[15] is a Japanese feminine given name.

General footnotes

When you need a footnote to contain paragraphs, lists or tables or when you need to reuse the same footnote at different locations in your document, you'll have to use the second, more general, form for a footnote.

This second form is a div element which has a class attribute containing "role-footnote" and an id attribute.

Moreover, you'll also have to insert an a element at the location where you want the footnote marker to be displayed. This a element, which points to the footnote div, must have a class attribute containing "role-footnote-ref".

Example:

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<p>Yoko<a class="role-footnote-ref" href="#ko"></a>is a Japanese
feminine given name.</p>

<div class="role-footnote" id="ko">Written with kanji <i>ko</i>, 
meaning "child". The syllable <i>ko</i> is not generally found 
at the end of masculine names.</div> 

is rendered as:

Yoko[16] is a Japanese feminine given name.

6.7. Cross-references

No need to specify the text of a link when this link points to a book division (chapter, section, etc) or to a table, figure, example, or equation having a caption.

Example, the following empty links point respectively to section "Admonitions" and to table "Admonition classes" found in this section:

<p><a href="admonitions.html"></a> contains
<a href="admonitions.html#admonition_classes"></a>.</p>

are rendered as:

Section 6.5. Admonitions contains Table 6-1. Admonition classes.

The text which is automatically generated for these empty links may be configured using attribute xreflabels of element book.

Links specified using attribute data-xml-id-ref

It's also possible to create links using the a element and proprietary attribute data-xml-id-ref rather than (or in addition to) standard attribute href.

Attribute data-xml-id-ref must contain the value of the xml:id attribute of a book division found in the ebook specification. This allows the creation of links to locations that do not exist in the input HTML pages, but which will be created in the output HTML pages.

Example, <a data-xml-id-ref="ch04"/> points to the following chapter:

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<chapter xml:id="ch04">
  <head><title>...</title></head>
  <section href="ch4/s1.html"/>
  <section href="ch4/s2.html"/>
</chapter>

In input HTML page "ch4/s2.html", you may refer to the first section of the chapter by writing <a href="s1.html"/>. But how to refer to the chapter itself? Notice that this chapter has no input HTML page to refer to.

The solution to this problem is to add proprietary attribute data-xml-id-ref to an a element. For the above example, it's <a data-xml-id-ref="ch04"/>.

Note that writing <a href="s1.html" data-xml-id-ref="ch04"/> is an even better option because href="s1.html" is used as a fallback link target in case xml:id="ch04" is not defined in the ebook specification.

6.8. Index terms

Creating index terms by hand (other than copying an index term to paste it elsewhere) is tedious and error prone. It's strongly recommended to use the specialized dialog box of XMLmind XHTML Editor (or its superset, XMLmind XML Editor) to do that.

Figure 6-1. The "Edit index term" dialog box of XMLmind XML Editor
The "Edit index term" dialog box of XMLmind XML Editor

An index term is represented by a a element having attribute class="role-index-term" containing text —the primary word or phrase in an index term— and possibly nested span elements having the following roles: "role-term", "role-see", "role-see-also".

index_term -> end_of_range | term

end_of_range -> <a class="role-index-term" data-end-range="range_name"/>

term -> <a class="role-index-term" term_attributes>term_content</a>

term_attributes -> [ data-sort-as="text" ]? 
                   [ data-start-range="range_name" ]?

term_content -> rich_text term_childs

term_childs -> [ sub_term ]? | [ see ]* | [ see_also ]*

sub_term -> <span class="role-term" term_attributes>term_content</span>

see -> <span class="role-see">see_content</span>

see_also -> <span class="role-see-also">see_content</span>

see_content -> rich_text see_child

see_child -> [ <span class="role-term">rich_text see_child</span> ]?

In the above grammar:

  • "Rich text" means the mix of text and phrase elements (b, i, em, etc) allowed in a and span elements.
  • Though the grammar allows <span class="role-term"> to be nested to an arbitrary depth, a <a class="role-index-term"> may contain only up two nested <span class="role-term">, corresponding respectively to the secondary word and tertiary word of an index term. The same limit applies to <span class="role-see"> and to <span class="role-see-also">.

Examples:

  • Simplest index term containing just a phrase:
    <a class="role-index-term">Dog, man's best friend</a>
  • “Sort-as” example:
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    <a class="role-index-term" 
       data-sort-as="percent">%</a>
  • Index terms having primary, secondary and tertiary terms:
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    <a class="role-index-term"><b>Pet</b>
      <span class="role-term">Cat</span>
    </a>
    ...
    <a class="role-index-term"><b>Pet</b>
      <span class="role-term">Cat
        <span class="role-term">Siamese</span>
      </span>
    </a>
    ...
    <a class="role-index-term"><b>Pet</b>
      <span class="role-term">Cat
        <span class="role-term">Burmese</span>
      </span>
    </a>
  • Start of the "dogs" range:
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    <a class="role-index-term"><b>Pet</b>
      <span class="role-term" data-start-range="dogs">Dog</span>
    </a>
  • End of the above "dogs" range. The end of a range must be found after the corresponding start of range in the same input HTML page or in a different input HTML page:
    <a class="role-index-term" data-end-range="dogs"></a>

    Notice that an end of range index term does not contain text nor any child element. It just has a "data-end-range" attribute.

  • “See” example:
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    <a class="role-index-term"><i lang="la">Felis catus</i>
      <span class="role-see">Pet
        <span class="role-term">Cat</span>
      </span>
    </a>
  • “See also” example:
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    <a class="role-index-term"><i lang="la">Canis lupus</i>
      <span class="role-see-also">Dog, man's best friend</span>
      <span class="role-see-also">Pet
        <span class="role-term">Dog</span>
      </span>
    </a>

Chapter 7. Reference of ebook elements

7.1. Element appendices

Specifies the group of appendices of the ebook.

Content model

(head? , body? , related* , appendix+)

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
href anyURI
min. length: 1
 
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain appendices: book.

Children

The following elements occur in appendices: appendix, body, head, related.

Example

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<appendices pagename="Appendixes">
  <appendix href="pages/known_problems.html"/>
  <appendix href="pages/error_list.html">
    <section href="pages/report_error.html"/>
  </chapter>
</part>

7.2. Element appendix

Specifies an appendix of the ebook.

Content model

(head? , body? , related* , section*)

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
href anyURI
min. length: 1
 
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain appendix: appendices, book.

Children

The following elements occur in appendix: body, head, related, section.

Example

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<appendices pagename="Appendixes">
  <appendix href="pages/known_problems.html"/>
  <appendix href="pages/error_list.html">
    <section href="pages/report_error.html"/>
  </chapter>
</part>

7.3. Element backmatter

Specifies the back matter of the ebook.

Content model

(toc | index | lot | lof | loe | 
 lox | section)+

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain backmatter: book.

Children

The following elements occur in backmatter: index, loe, lof, lot, lox, section, toc.

Example

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<backmatter>
  <section href="glossary.html"/>
  <index/>
</backmatter>

7.4. Element body

Specifies the content of a book division (part, chapter, section, etc).

When the parent of body is element book then body specifies the content of the “title page” of the book.

It's possible for a book division to have both an href attribute and a body child element. In such case, the content “pulled” using the href attribute is inserted before the content specified by the body child element.

Content model

content+

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain body: appendices, appendix, book, chapter, part, section.

Children

The following elements occur in body: content.

Example

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<chapter>
  <head>
    <title>Using Widget</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <content href="using1.html"/>
    <content href="using2.html"/>
  </body>
</chapter>

7.5. Element book

Specifies a complete ebook.

Content model

(headcommon? , 
 head? , 
 body? , 
 related* , 
 frontmatter? , 
 ((part+ , appendices?) | 
  (chapter+ , appendix*)) , 
 backmatter?)

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
adjustuserheadings boolean "true"
appendicestocdepth nonNegativeInteger "0"
appendixnumber normalizedString "%A"
appendixtocdepth nonNegativeInteger "0"
booklistlabels none | all |
(part | chapter | appendix | section | figure | table | example | equation)+
"none"
chapternumber normalizedString "%1"
chaptertocdepth nonNegativeInteger "0"
equationnumber normalizedString "%n-%1"
examplenumber normalizedString "%n-%1"
figurenumber normalizedString "%n-%1"
footnotenumber normalizedString "[%1]"
headoverridedefault boolean "false"
href anyURI
min. length: 1
 
labelseparator normalizedString ""
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
partnumber normalizedString "%I"
parttocdepth nonNegativeInteger "0"
preventlonelyheading boolean "true"
section1number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section2number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section3number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section4number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section5number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section6number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section7number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section8number normalizedString "%n.%1"
section9number normalizedString "%n.%1"
tablenumber normalizedString "%n-%1."
titlelabels none | all |
(part | chapter | appendix | section | figure | table | example | equation)+
"part chapter appendix figure table example equation"
tocdepth positiveInteger "10"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .
xreflabels none | all |
(part | part-number | chapter | chapter-number | appendix | appendix-number | section | section-number | figure | figure-number | table | table-number | example | example-number | equation | equation-number)+
"all"

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

adjustuserheadings
If set to true, change the level of user-specified headings (h1, h2, h3, etc) to be consistent with the level of automatically generated headings. If set to false, do not change any user-specified headings. Example:
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<chapter href="ch01.html" pagename="first_chapter">
  <section href="s01.html" pagename="first_section">
    <section href="s01_01.html" pagename="nested_section">
    ...

where input HTML file "s01_01.html" starts with a user-specified h1.

With adjustuserheadings="false", output HTML file "nested_section.html" contains:

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<section class="role-section2>
  <h3 class="role-section2-title">Title of the section copied
                                  from "s01_01.html"<h3>
    <h1>User-specified heading found in "s01_01.html"</h1>
     ...

With adjustuserheadings="true", output HTML file "nested_section.html" contains:

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<section class="role-section2>
  <h3 class="role-section2-title">Title of the section copied
                                  from "s01_01.html"<h3>
    <h4>User-specified heading found in "s01_01.html"</h4>
    ...

Note that adjustuserheadings="true" has no effect on headings having a class attribute. A heading having a user-specified class attribute is understood by XMLmind Ebook Compiler as being “not an ordinary heading which could be modified”.

appendicestocdepth
If set to an integer larger than 0, instructs ebookc to automatically generate a Table of Contents (TOC) having specified depth at the beginning of the appendices division of the book.
appendixnumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of an appendix. See Number format.
appendixtocdepth
If set to an integer larger than 0, instructs ebookc to automatically generate a Table of Contents (TOC) having specified depth at the beginning of each appendix of the book.
booklistlabels
Specifies the kind of numbered book divisions (part, chapter, appendix, section) and numbered figure objects (figure, table, equation, example) for which to add labels. This option applies to book list entries (toc, lof, lot, loe, lox).
What is a label?

A label is a localized message containing the type of the book division or figure object. For example, with chapternumber="%1", labelseparator=") ", booklistlabels="none", a TOC entry for a chapter looks like: "1) Introduction". With booklistlabels="chapter" (or booklistlabels="all"), this TOC entry looks like: "Chapter 1) Introduction".

Note that labels are added only to numbered book divisions or figure objects. For example, with chapternumber="%1", booklistlabels="", a TOC entry for a chapter will look like: "Introduction".

chapternumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a chapter. See Number format.
chaptertocdepth
If set to an integer larger than 0, instructs ebookc to automatically generate a Table of Contents (TOC) having specified depth at the beginning of each chapter of the book.
equationnumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the caption of an equation. See Number format.
examplenumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the caption of an example. See Number format.
figurenumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the caption of an figure. See Number format.
footnotenumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to footnotes (<span class="role-footnote"> or <div class="role-footnote">) and footnote callouts (<a class="role-footnote-ref">).
headoverridedefault
Specifies the default value of attribute override of element head.
labelseparator
Specifies the string which is appended to the label automatically generated at the beginning of the title of a book division (part, chapter, appendix, section) or figure object (figure, table, equation, example). Example: with labelseparator=") ", the output HTML element generated for the following chapter is:
<chapter href="ch01.html">

is:

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<section class="role-chapter>
  <h1 class="role-chapter-title">
    <span class="role-label">Chapter
      <span class="role-number">1</span>) </span>
    Title of the chapter copied from "ch01.html"<h1>
partnumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a part of the book. See Number format.
parttocdepth
If set to an integer larger than 0, instructs ebookc to automatically generate a Table of Contents (TOC) having specified depth at the beginning of each part of the book.
preventlonelyheading
If set to true, prevent an output HTML page from containing only a title. Example:
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<chapter pagename="chapter1">
  <head>
    <title>First chapter</title>
  </head>
  <section href="s01.html"/>
  ...

With preventlonelyheading="false", output HTML page "output_directory/chapter1.html" contains just the title of the chapter "First chapter", which may be surprising for the reader of the book.

With preventlonelyheading="true", output HTML page "output_directory/chapter1.html" contains the title of the chapter "First chapter" and also the content of input HTML page "s01.html"[17].

section1number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a top level section. See Number format.
section2number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 2 (subsection of a top level section). See Number format.
section3number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 3. See Number format.
section4number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 4. See Number format.
section5number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 5. See Number format.
section6number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 6. See Number format.
section7number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 7. See Number format.
section8number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 8. See Number format.
section9number
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the title of a section having a nesting level equal to 9. See Number format.
tablenumber
Specifies the format of the number automatically added to the caption of an table. See Number format.
titlelabels
Specifies the kind of numbered book divisions (part, chapter, appendix, section) and numbered figure objects (figure, table, equation, example) for which to add labels. This option applies to titles or captions.

For example, with chapternumber="%1", labelseparator=") ", titlelabels="none", the title of a chapter looks like: "1) Introduction". With titlelabels="chapter" (or titlelabels="all"), this title looks like: "Chapter 1) Introduction".

tocdepth
Specifies the depth of the main Table of Contents (TOC) (see toc element).
xml:lang
Specifies the main language of the book. This language is used to automatically generate some titles (e.g. "Table of Contents", "List of Figures") and also to sort index entries.

Unlike lang, which is a XHTML5 global attribute, xml:lang is not copied to the output HTML element corresponding to the book element.

However, explicitly setting attribute xml:lang on the book element is a convenient way to ensure that all the output HTML pages have a lang attribute.

xreflabels
Specifies the kind of numbered book divisions (part, chapter, appendix, section) and numbered figure objects (figure, table, equation, example) for which to add labels. This option applies to automatically generated link text.

For example, with chapternumber="%1", labelseparator=") ", xreflabels="none", the text automatically generated for empty link to chapter <a href="intro.html"/> looks like: "1) Introduction". With xreflabels="chapter" (or xreflabels="all"), this text looks like: "Chapter 1) Introduction".

With xreflabels="chapter-number", this text looks like: "Chapter 1", that is, no chapter title, just the label without any label separator. Note that this "-number" suffix is supported only by xreflabels.

Children

The following elements occur in book: appendices, appendix, backmatter, body, chapter, frontmatter, head, headcommon, part, related.

Example

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<book appendixtocdepth="100" chaptertocdepth="100"
      section7number="" section8number="" section9number=""
      labelseparator=" "
      booklistlabels="chapter appendix"
      xreflabels="chapter appendix section
                  figure-number table-number equation-number example-number"
      xml:lang="en-US"
      xmlns="http://www.xmlmind.com/schema/ebook"
      xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <head>
    <title>Widget User Guide</title>
    <html:meta content="John Smith" name="author"/>
    <html:meta content="2017-08-25" name="dc.date"/>
  </head>
  ...
</book>

7.6. Element chapter

Specifies a chapter of the ebook.

Content model

(head? , body? , related* , section*)

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
href anyURI
min. length: 1
 
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain chapter: book, part.

Children

The following elements occur in chapter: body, head, related, section.

Example

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<part>
  <chapter href="pages/install.html">
    <section href="pages/requirements.html" samepage="true"/>
  </chapter>
  <chapter href="pages/quick_start.html"/>
</part>

7.7. Element content

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to copy to the output HTML page all the elements found in the html:body of the input HTML page pointed to by the href attribute.

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
href anyURI
min. length: 1
REQUIRED
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain content: body.

Example

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<chapter>
  <head>
    <title>Using Widget</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <content href="using1.html"/>
    <content href="using2.html"/>
  </body>
</chapter>

7.8. Element frontmatter

Specifies the front matter of the ebook.

Content model

(toc | index | lot | lof | loe | 
 lox | section)+

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain frontmatter: book.

Children

The following elements occur in frontmatter: index, loe, lof, lot, lox, section, toc.

Example

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<frontmatter>
  <toc/>
  <lof/>
  <lot/>
  <lox/>
  <loe/>
  <section href="intro.html"/>
</frontmatter>

7.10. Element headcommon

Specifies some common content for the html:head elements of all the output HTML pages.

Note that the XHTML5 global attributes found on element headcommon are also copied to the html:head elements of all the output HTML pages.

Content model

(html:base | html:link | html:meta | html:script | html:style | 
 html:template)*

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain headcommon: book.

Children

The following elements occur in headcommon: html:base, html:link, html:meta, html:script, html:style, html:template.

Example

Element headcommon is typically used to give a common CSS stylesheet to all the output HTML pages.

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<book>
  <headcommon>
    <html:link href="../resources/styles.css" rel="stylesheet"
               type="text/css"/>
    <html:link href="../resources/bullets/" rel="resource"
               type="inode/directory"/>
  </headcommon>
  ...
</book>

7.11. Element index

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to automatically generate an index.

  • The language used to automatically sort generated index entries is taken from the xml:lang attribute of the book element.
  • An index term is a a element without an href attribute having class attribute containing "role-index-term". See Section 6.8. Index terms.

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain toc: backmatter, frontmatter.

Example

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<backmatter>
  <section href="glossary.html"/>
  <index/>
</backmatter>

7.12. Element loe

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to automatically generate a List of Equations (LOE).

An equation listed in the LOE is a html:figure element having a html:figcaption and a class attribute containing "role-equation". See Section 6.4. Equations.

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain loe: backmatter, frontmatter.

Example

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<frontmatter>
  <toc/>
  <lof/>
  <lot/>
  <lox/>
  <loe/>
  <section href="intro.html"/>
</frontmatter>

7.13. Element lof

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to automatically generate a List of Figures (LOF).

A plain figure listed in the LOF is a html:figure having a html:figcaption and no class attribute or a class attribute not containing "role-equation" or "role-example".

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain lof: backmatter, frontmatter.

Example

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<frontmatter>
  <toc/>
  <lof/>
  <lot/>
  <lox/>
  <loe/>
  <section href="intro.html"/>
</frontmatter>

7.14. Element lot

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to automatically generate a List of Tables (LOT).

A table listed in the LOT is a html:table having a html:caption.

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain lot: backmatter, frontmatter.

Example

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<frontmatter>
  <toc/>
  <lof/>
  <lot/>
  <lox/>
  <loe/>
  <section href="intro.html"/>
</frontmatter>

7.15. Element lox

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to automatically generate a List of Examples (LOX).

An example listed in the LOX is a html:figure element having a html:figcaption and a class attribute containing "role-example". See Section 6.3. Examples.

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain lox: backmatter, frontmatter.

Example

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<frontmatter>
  <toc/>
  <lof/>
  <lot/>
  <lox/>
  <loe/>
  <section href="intro.html"/>
</frontmatter>

7.16. Element part

Specifies a part —a group of chapters— of the ebook.

Content model

(head? , body? , related* , chapter+)

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
href anyURI
min. length: 1
 
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain part: book.

Children

The following elements occur in part: body, chapter, head, related.

Example

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<part>
  <chapter href="pages/install.html">
    <section href="pages/requirements.html" samepage="true"/>
  </chapter>
  <chapter href="pages/quick_start.html"/>
</part>

7.18. Element section

Specifies a section of the ebook.

Content model

(head? , body? , related* , section*)

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
href anyURI
min. length: 1
 
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain section: appendix, backmatter, chapter, frontmatter, section.

Children

The following elements occur in section: body, head, related, section.

Example

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<part>
  <chapter href="pages/install.html">
    <section href="pages/requirements.html" samepage="true"/>
  </chapter>
  <chapter href="pages/quick_start.html"/>
</part>

7.19. Element title

Specifies the “rich” title of a book division (part, chapter, section, etc).

Content model

Element title can contain text and the same XHTML5 child elements as an html:p element (that is,phrasing content: html:b, html:img, etc) in any order and in any number.

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: XHTML5 global attributes, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain title: head.

Children

The following elements occur in title: the same XHTML5 child elements as an html:p element.

Example

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<appendix href="ssh_key.html">
  <head>
    <title>Generating Your <html:b>SSH</html:b> Public Key</title>
  </head>
</appendix>

7.20. Element toc

Instructs XMLmind Ebook Compiler to automatically generate a Table of Contents (TOC).

Content model

EMPTY

Attributes

Name Data type Default value
pagename token
min. length: 1
 
samepage boolean "false"
xml:base anyURI  
xml:id ID  
xml:lang language or "" (the empty string) .

Other attributes: any attribute having a name starting with "data-".

Parents

The following elements contain toc: backmatter, frontmatter.

Example

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<frontmatter>
  <toc/>
  <lof/>
  <lot/>
  <lox/>
  <loe/>
  <section href="intro.html"/>
</frontmatter>

7.21. Common attributes

href
Specifies the location of an input HTML file. This file must contain valid XHTML5 (more information in Section 6.1. Valid XHTML5). The specified URL may not have a fragment identifier (e.g. something like href="ch09.html#conclusion" is not supported).
pagename
Specifies the base name without any extension of an output HTML file. By default, this name is the same as the name of the corresponding input HTML file. Example:
<chapter href="intro.html" pagename="introduction"/>

By default, without attribute pagename, the page generated for the above chapter would be output_directory/intro.html.

After setting pagename to "introduction", the page generated for the above chapter is output_directory/introduction.html.

samepage
Specifies that the book division (e.g. a section) is to be generated in the same output HTML file as its parent book division (e.g. a chapter). By default, all book divisions are generated by ebookc in their own HTML files. Example:
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<chapter href="ch1.html">
  <section href="ch1/s1.html" samepage="true"/>
  <section href="ch1/s2.html"/>
</chapter>

Attribute samepage="true" instructs ebookc to generate the content of the chapter and the content of the first section in the same HTML file. The second section having an implied samepage="false" is created in its own HTML file.

Note that something like:

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<chapter href="ch1.html">
  <section href="ch1/s1.html"/>
  <section href="ch1/s2.html" samepage="true"/>
</chapter>

is an error because there is no way for ebookc to generate two sibling sections in the same output HTML file.

xml:base
Specifies a base URL which used to resolve the relative URLs found in the ebook specification.
xml:lang
Ignored for any element other than book, for which it specifies the main language of the book.
xml:id
Specifies the unique ID of an element of the ebook specification. Specifying an xml:id attribute is useful in the following cases:
  • It is required for a book division to be referenced in a related element. Example:
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    <chapter href="ch1.html" xml:id="ch01">
      <related ids="ch01 ch02 ch03" xml:id="rel1"/>
    </chapter>
  • It allows the inclusion of ebook elements using XInclude. In the preceding example, related element "rel1" is defined in first chapter. In the following example, a copy of related element "rel1" is included in the second chapter:
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    <chapter href="ch2.html" xml:id="ch02">
      <xi:include href="" xpointer="rel1" set-xml-id=""
                  xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"/>
    </chapter>
  • It may be used to control the IDs generated in the output HTML pages. Example:
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    <chapter href="ch3.html" xml:id="going_further">
      <section href="ch3/s1.html" xml:id="requirements" samepage="true"/>
    </chapter>
    • The html element of the output page containing the chapter will have id="going_further". All the elements “pulled” from "ch3.html" will have their IDs prefixed with "going_further__".
    • The section element containing the section will have id="requirements". All the elements “pulled” from "ch3/s1.html" will have their IDs prefixed with "requirements__".
  • Referencing the value of an xml:id attribute in proprietary attribute data-xml-id-ref may be used to create links to locations that do not exist in the input HTML pages, but which will be created in the output HTML pages. Example:
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    <chapter xml:id="ch04">
      <head><title>...</title></head>
      <section href="ch4/s1.html"/>
      <section href="ch4/s2.html"/>
    </chapter>

    In input HTML page "ch4/s2.html", you may refer to the first section of the chapter by writing <a href="s1.html"/>. But how to refer to the chapter itself? Notice that this chapter has no input HTML page to refer to.

    The solution to this problem is to add proprietary attribute data-xml-id-ref to an a element. For the above example, it's <a data-xml-id-ref="ch04"/>.

    Note that writing <a href="s1.html" data-xml-id-ref="ch04"/> is an even better option because href="s1.html" is used as a fallback link target in case xml:id="ch04" is not defined in the ebook specification.

Any XHTML5 global attribute, including any attribute having a name starting with "data-"
These attributes (e.g. class, dir, lang, onclick, style) are copied to the output HTML element corresponding to the book division. Example: the output HTML element corresponding to the following appendix:
<appendix href="a2.html" samepage="true" class="disclaimer" lang="fr-FR"/>

is:

<html:section class="role-appendix disclaimer" lang="fr-FR"/>

Specifying an id attribute for a book division is likely to cause broken links in the output HTML files.

Chapter 8. How it works

Figure 8-1. XMLmind Ebook Compiler components
XMLmind Ebook Compiler components The main component of XMLmind Ebook CompilerSingle HTML page outputEPUB ouputWeb Help ouputXSL-FO based outputCSS styles to XSL-FO properties
  1. The Processor is the main component of XMLmind Ebook Compiler. It processes an ebook specification referencing a number of valid XHTML5 pages. It generates processed valid XHTML5 pages and generally also, a subdirectory (called "_res/" by default) containing all the resources referenced by the processed pages.

    Whatever the file layout of the input HTML pages and their resources, all the files and directories are always created in a single output directory, which makes this output directory self-contained.

    In addition to the processed pages, the Processor automatically creates an HTML page (called "_toc_frame.html" by default) containing a table of contents and the manifest of all the resources found in the resource directory (in the form of <link href="XXX" rel="resource" type="YYY"/> elements).

    The Processor also automatically creates an HTML page (called "_frameset.html" by default) containing a frameset. The only purpose of this frameset is to be able to quickly navigate the output of the Processor when testing and debugging.

  2. Generating a single HTML page out of an ebook specification does not involve any further processing steps. The Processor is simply instructed to generate a single page and files "_toc_frame.html" and "_frameset.html" are discarded.
  3. Generating an EPUB file requires transforming "_toc_frame.html" by the means of the xsl/epub/epub.xsl stylesheet and then archiving[18] the contents of the output directory.
  4. Generating a Web Help requires transforming "_toc_frame.html" by the means of the xsl/webhelp/webhelp.xsl stylesheet and then processing the contents of the output directory using XMLmind Web Help Compiler.
  5. Generating PDF, DOCX, ODT, etc, requires first generating an intermediate format called XSL-FO. This is done by the means of the xsl/fo/fo.xsl stylesheet. After that, it's up to an XSL-FO processor — Apache FOP, RenderX XEP or Antenna House Formatter for the PostScript and PDF formats, XMLmind XSL-FO Converter for the RTF, WML, DOCX and ODT formats— to create the output file.
  6. The CSS styles specified in the ebook specification and in the source HTML pages are also used when generating output formats based on XSL-FO. However for this to work, these CSS styles need to be translated to directly usable XSL-FO properties (see apply-css-styles) and stored in processing-instructions (<?css-styles?>) prior to be transformed by the xsl/fo/fo.xsl stylesheet. This preparatory step is implemented by the "CSS to XSL-FO properties" component depicted in the above figure.

Chapter 9. The ebookc command-line utility

Command-line usage

ebookc [option]* in_ebook_file out_file_or_directory

Converts specified ebook input file and saves the result of the conversion to specified output file or directory.

An ebook input file may be specified using its URL or its filename.

Output formats webhelp, html and frameset require output_file_or_directory to be a directory. Other output formats require output_file_or_directory to be a file.

The output directory is created if it does not already exist.

Example: convert userguide.ebook to Web Help:

C:\docsrc> ebookc -f webhelp userguide.ebook out\wh

Example: convert userguide.ebook to PDF using RenderX XEP:

C:\docsrc> ebookc -xep C:\xep\xep.bat userguide.ebook out\userguide.pdf

Commonly used command-line options

Some options have both a short name and a long name. Example: -p is equivalent to -param.

-p param_name param_value
-param param_name param_value
Specifies a conversion parameter, generally an XSLT stylesheet parameter.
"profile." parameters

A param_name starting with "profile." specifies a profiling attribute. Example: -p profile.data-output-format html or more simply -p profile.output-format html (the "data-" attribute name prefix being implied). See Section 4.2. Conditional processing.

"proc." parameters

A param_name starting with "proc." specifies a low-level option which is passed to the first pass of ebookc. This first pass, called the Processor, compiles the input ebook specification to multi-page XHTML5 with a frameset and a “TOC frame”[19], see Chapter 8. How it works. Example: -p proc.resourcedirname resources.

Setting these low-level options “by hand” is almost never needed, it's best not to fiddle with these.

Table 9-1. Low-level processor options
Option Value Description

debug

true | false

Default: false.

Print low-level debugging info.

externalresourcebase

Absolute or relative URI ending with '/'.

Default: '' (no base).

Specifies an absolute or relative URI to be prepended to external resources having a relative URI.

framesetfilename

File basename without any extension.

Default: "_frameset".

Specifies the name of the frameset file generated by first pass.

htmlcharset

A valid charset.

Default: "UTF-8".

Specifies which charset to use for the generated HTML files.

htmlextension

File extension (without a leading period).

Default: "html".

Specifies which file extension to use for the generated HTML files.

ignoreresources

true | false

Default: false.

If set to true, do not process resources. That is, treat all resources as if they were external resources.

indexfilename

File basename without any extension.

Default: none.

Specifies that the index is to be generated in a separate HTML file. This option specifies the name of this separate file.

Setting this option generally also requires setting suppressindex to true.

Ignored unless the ebook as specified by the user actually contains an <index/> descendant.

pagenavigation

none | header | footer | both

Default: none.

Specifies whether page navigation headers and/or footers are to be added to the output HTML pages.

The page navigation headers and footers are styled using CSS stylesheet pageNavigation.css found in ebookc_install_dir/xsl/common/resources/.

reservedfilenames

One or more file basenames (without any extension) separated by newline characters.

Default: none.

Do not generate HTML files having any of the specified names.

resourcedirname

File basename without any extension.

Default: "_res".

Specifies the name of the directory where all the resources (e.g. image files, CSS files) referenced in the output HTML pages are stored.

resourcedirnamefor

URL or file path.

Same as resourcedirname except that the name of the resource directory is computed out of the option value. For example, sets the name of the resource directory to "my doc_files" when passed "file:/tmp/my%20doc.epub" or "C:\temp\my doc.epub".

singlepage

true | false

Default: false.

Generate a single HTML page.

suppressindex

true | false

Default: false.

Suppress <index/> from the ebook specification before generating the output HTML pages.

Setting suppressindex to true is generally needed when indexfilename is also specified.

suppresstoc

true | false

Default: false.

Suppress <toc/> from the ebook specification before generating the output HTML pages.

tocframefilename

File basename without any extension.

Default: "_toc_frame".

Specifies the name of the “TOC frame” file generated by first pass.

validate

true | false

Default: true when invoked by the ebookc command-line utility, false otherwise.

Validate the ebook specification against the W3C XML schema found in ebookc_install_dir/schema/ebook.xsd.

-t XSLT_stylesheet_URL_or_file
-xslt XSLT_stylesheet_URL_or_file
Use the specified custom XSLT stylesheet rather than the stock one.
-f html1 | html | webhelp | epub | ps | pdf | rtf | odt | wml | docx | fo | frameset
-format html1 | html | webhelp | epub | ps | pdf | rtf | odt | wml | docx | fo | frameset
Explicitly specifies the output format. By default, the output format is determined using the extension of output_file_or_directory.
Table 9-2. Output formats
Output format Description
html1 Single XHTML5 page.

Automatically detected filename extensions are: "html", "htm", "xhtml", "xhtm" or "xht".

html Multiple XHTML5 pages.
webhelp Web Help
epub EPUB 3
ps PostScript[20]
pdf PDF[20]
rtf RTF (can be opened in Word 2000+)[21]
wml WordprocessingML (can be opened in Word 2003+)[21]
docx Office Open XML (.docx, can be opened in Word 2007+)[21]
odt OpenOffice (.odt, can be opened in OpenOffice/LibreOffice 2+)[21]
fo XSL-FO. Mainly used for debugging and testing purposes.
frameset Multi-page XHTML5 with a frameset and a “TOC frame”. Mainly used for debugging and testing purposes.
-o options_URL_or_file
-option options_URL_or_file
This option lets the user specify a text file containing command-line arguments. This text file has the same format as the ebookc.options file.

Example:

$ ebookc -v -o go.options go.ebook go.epub

If go.options contains:

-p epub-identifier urn:isbn:0451450523
-p cover-image /home/john/artwork/playing_go.png

then this is equivalent to running:

$ ebookc -v -p epub-identifier urn:isbn:0451450523 \
    -p cover-image /home/john/artwork/playing_go.png \
    go.ebook go.epub
-v
-vv
-vvv
Turn verbosity on. More Vs means more verbose.

Command-line options used to configure ebookc

-fop executable_file
Specifies the location of the fop shell script (fop.bat on Windows).

Shorthand for:

-foconverter FOP pdf "executable_file" -q -r -fo "%I" -pdf "%O"
-foconverter FOP ps "executable_file" -q -r -fo "%I" -ps "%O"
-xep executable_file
Specifies the location of the xep shell script (xep.bat on Windows).

Shorthand for:

-foconverter XEP pdf "executable_file" -quiet -valid -fo "%I" -pdf "%O"
-foconverter XEP ps "executable_file" -quiet -valid -fo "%I" -ps "%O"
-ahf executable_file
Specifies the location of AHFCmd.exe (run.sh on platforms other than Windows).

Shorthand for:

-foconverter AHF pdf "executable_file" -x 3 -p @PDF -d "%I\" -o "%O"
-foconverter AHF ps "executable_file" -x 3 -p @PS -d "%I" -o "%O"
-xfc executable_file
Specifies the location of the fo2rtf shell script (fo2rtf.bat on Windows).

Suffice to specify the location of fo2rtf. Using this location, ebookc infers the locations of fo2wml, fo2docx and fo2odt.

Shorthand for:

-foconverter XFC rtf "fo2rtf_executable_file" "%I" "%O"
-foconverter XFC wml "fo2wml_executable_file" "%I" "%O"
-foconverter XFC docx "fo2docx_executable_file" "%I" "%O"
-foconverter XFC odf "fo2odt_executable_file" "%I" "%O"
-foconverter processor_name target_format command
Register specified XSL-FO converter with ebookc, a lower-level alternative to using -xep, -fop, -ahf or -xfc. Example:
-foconverter XFC rtf '/opt/xfc/bin/fo2rtf "%I" "%O"'

Note that this option can be specified several times with different values in the same command-line.

This low-level option may be used for example to specify a configuration file for Apache FOP:

-foconverter FOP pdf \
'/opt/fop/fop -c /home/john/docs/fop.conf -q -r -fo "%I" -pdf "%O"'

Command-line options used to debug ebookc

-dryrun
Use ebookc as a validator, and most notably check cross-references. That is, do not generate any file; just report errors if any.
-errout
Output all messages, including errors and warnings, to stdout.
-ignoreoptionsfile
Do not load the ebookc.options options file. See below The ebookc.options file.
-keepfo
When generating PDF, RTF, DOCX, etc, do not delete the temporary XSL-FO file.
-keepforesources true|yes|on|1 | false|no|off|0
When generating XSL-FO, PDF, RTF, DOCX, etc, do not delete the generated resource directory.

By default, -keepfo implies -keepforesources true.

-version
Print version number and exit.

The ebookc.options file

It is also possible to specify command-line options in the ebookc.options options file. The content of this plain text file, encoded in the native encoding of the platform (e.g. Windows-1252 on a Western Windows PC), is automatically loaded by ebookc each time this command is executed. The content of this file, command-line options separated by whitespace, is prepended to the options specified in the command-line.

Example: If ebookc.options contains:

-v -xep C:\xep\xep.bat

Running:

~/docsrc$ ebookc userguide.ebook out\userguide.pdf

is equivalent to running:

~/docsrc$ ebookc -v -xep C:\xep\xep.bat userguide.ebook out\userguide.pdf

The ebookc.options options file is found in the ebookc user preferences directory. This directory is:

  • $HOME/.ebookc/ on Linux.
  • $HOME/Library/Application Support/XMLmind/ebookc/ on the Mac.
  • %APPDATA%\XMLmind\ebookc\ on Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10.

    Example: C:\Documents and Settings\john\Application Data\XMLmind\ebookc\ on Windows XP. C:\Users\john\AppData\Roaming\XMLmind\ebookc\ on Windows Vista, 7, 8, 10.

The ebookc.options options file is mainly useful to configure ebookc once for all by specifying values for the -fop, -xep, -xfc, -ahf options.

Example:

-v
-xep E:\opt\xep\xep.bat
-fop E:\opt\fop-2.2\fop\fop.bat
-xfc "E:\opt\xfc_eval_java-5_4_5\bin\fo2rtf.bat"
  • Relative filenames found in this file are relative to the current working directory, and not to the ebookc.options options file. Therefore it is recommended to always specify absolute filenames.
  • No comments (e.g. lines starting with '#') are allowed in ebookc.options. Options must be separated by whitespace.
  • In the above example, FOP is declared after XEP. This implies that it is FOP and not XEP, which will be used by ebookc to generate PDF and PostScript®.
  • An XSL-FO processor tend to consume a lot of memory. If the ebook compilation fails with an out-of-memory error, you need to edit the xep (xep.bat), fop (fop.bat), fo2xxx (fo2xxx.bat) scripts in order to increase the maximum amount of memory that the Java™ runtime may allocate. This is done by using the -Xmx option of the Java™ command-line. Example: "java ... -Xmx512m ...".
  • Starting from Java™ 1.6.0_23, converting XML documents to PDF using RenderX XEP randomly fails with false XSL-FO errors (e.g. attribute "space-before" may not be empty). This problem seems specific to the 64-bit runtime.

    The workarounds for the above bug ("renderx #22766") are:

    • Use a 32-bit Java™ runtime.
    • OR Use a 64-bit Java™ runtime older than 1.6.0_23.
    • OR Specify option -valid in the xep command-line. Note that this workaround is automatically used when you specify which RenderX XEP executable to use by the means of the -xep command-line option.

Chapter 10. XSLT stylesheets parameters

10.1. Parameters of the XSLT stylesheets used to convert an ebook specification to EPUB

Parameter Value Default Value Description
cover-image URI. If the URI is relative, it is relative to the current working directory of the user. None. Specifies an image file which is to be used as the cover page of the EPUB file. This image must be a PNG or JPEG image. Its size must not exceed 1000x1000 pixels.

In theory, EPUB 3 also accepts SVG 1.1 cover images.

epub-identifier String Dynamically generated UUID URN. A globally unique identifier for the generated EPUB document (typically the permanent URL of the EPUB document).
epub2-compatible 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' By default, the EPUB 3 files generated by ebookc are made compatible with EPUB 2 readers. Specify 'no' if you don't need this compatibility.
omit-toc-root 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specify 'yes' if you want the title of the book to be the root of the EPUB TOC.

10.2. Parameters of the XSLT stylesheets used to convert an ebook specification to Web Help

Parameters starting with "wh-" are pseudo-parameters. They may or may not be passed to the XSLT stylesheets, but the important thing to remember is that they are also interpreted by ebookc itself. Consequently you cannot specify them in an XSLT stylesheet which customizes the stock ones.

Parameter Value Default Value Description
omit-toc-root 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specify 'yes' if you want the title of the book to be the root of the Web Help TOC.
wh-collapse-toc 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether the Web Help TOC should be initially collapsed.
wh-index-numbers 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether words looking like numbers are to be indexed.

Examples of such number-like words: 3.14, 3,14, 3times4equals12, +1, -1.0, 3px, 1,2cm, 100%, 1.0E+6, 1,000.00$.

wh-jquery Relative or absolute URI. A relative URI is relative to the URI of a page of the Web Help. Absolute URI of the corresponding file found on the Google CDN. Specifies the location of the JavaScript file containing jQuery.

Example: https://code.jquery.com/¬
jquery-3.2.1.min.js
.

Specifying an "https:" URL is recommended when the generated Web Help is stored on an HTTPS server.

wh-jquery-css Relative or absolute URI. A relative URI is relative to the URI of a page of the Web Help. Absolute URI of the corresponding file found on the Google CDN. Specifies the location of the CSS stylesheet of jQuery UI.

Example: https://code.jquery.com/ui/¬
1.12.1/themes/redmond/jquery-ui.css
.

Specifying an "https:" URL is recommended when the generated Web Help is stored on an HTTPS server.

wh-jquery-custom-theme Filename or absolute URI of a .zip file created using JQueryUI ThemeRoller. A relative filename is relative to the current working directory. None. Specifies a .zip file created using JQueryUI ThemeRoller containing a custom JQueryUI theme. Example: jquery-ui-1.12.1.custom.zip.

The files comprising the custom theme are copied to _wh/jquery/, where _wh/ is the directory containing the other Web Help files.

Ignored if parameter jquery-css has been used to specify the CSS stylesheet of jQuery UI.

wh-jquery-theme The name of a theme. Examples: 'redmond', 'cupertino'. 'smoothness' Specifies the name of the jQuery UI theme used by the compiler.

Ignored if parameter jquery-css or jquery-custom-theme have been used to specify the CSS stylesheet of jQuery UI.

wh-jquery-ui Relative or absolute URI. A relative URI is relative to the URI of a page of the Web Help. Absolute URI of the corresponding file found on the Google CDN. Specifies the location of the JavaScript file containing jQuery UI .

Example: https://code.jquery.com/ui/¬
1.12.1/jquery-ui.min.js
.

Specifying an "https:" URL is recommended when the generated Web Help is stored on an HTTPS server.

wh-local-jquery 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether all jQuery files should be copied to _wh/jquery/, where _wh/ is the directory containing the other Web Help files.

By default, the jQuery files are accessed from the Web (typically from a CDN).

Note that this parameter is applied after JQuery and JQueryUI have been possibly customized using parameters jquery, jquery-ui, jquery-css, jquery-theme and jquery-custom-theme. For example, "-p jquery-theme cupertino -p local-jquery yes" copies the Cupertino CSS files to _wh/jquery/.

wh-layout The name of a layout. 'classic' Selects a layout for the generated Web Help.

For now, only 2 layouts are supported: 'classic' and 'simple'.

wh-use-stemming 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specifies whether stemming should be used to implement the search facility.

By default, stemming is used whenever possible, that is,

  1. when the main language of the XHTML pages to be compiled can be determined;
  2. when this main language is one of: Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Romanian, Turkish.

The main language of the document is specified by the @xml:lang attribute found on the root element of the ebook specification being compiled; otherwise, it is assumed to be "en".

wh-user-css Filename or absolute URI of a CSS file. A relative filename is relative to the current working directory. None. Specifies the user's CSS stylesheet which is to be added to an XHTML page decorated by the compiler.

This file is copied to output_directory/_wh/user/.

Sample user's CSS wh_resources/header_footer.css as used in the following example:

-p wh-user-header¬
wh_resources/header.html
-p wh-user-footer¬
wh_resources/footer.html
-p wh-user-css¬
wh_resources/header_footer.css
-p wh-user-resources¬
wh_resources/header_footer_files
wh-user-footer Filename or absolute URI of an XHTML file. A relative filename is relative to the current working directory. None. Specifies the user's footer which is to be added to each page of the Web Help.

The content of the body element of user-footer is inserted as is in the <div id="wh-footer"> found in each page of the Web Help.

Same remark as for parameter user-header about the resources referenced by a user's footer.

Sample user's footer wh_resources/footer.html as used in the following example:

-p wh-user-header¬
wh_resources/header.html
-p wh-user-footer¬
wh_resources/footer.html
-p wh-user-css¬
wh_resources/header_footer.css
-p wh-user-resources¬
wh_resources/header_footer_files
wh-user-header Filename or absolute URI of an XHTML file. A relative filename is relative to the current working directory. None. Specifies the user's header which is to be added to each page of the Web Help.

The content of the body element of user-header is inserted as is in the <div id="wh-header"> found in each page of the Web Help.

If a user's header references resources (e.g. image files), then these resources must either be referenced using absolute URLs or these resources must be found in a user's resource directory and parameter user-resources must be specified.

Example:

  • The user's resource directory is called header_footer_files/ and contains header_footer_files/logo100x50.png.
  • ebookc is passed parameters -p user-resources PATH_TO/header_footer_files and -p user-header PATH_TO/header.html.
  • header.html looks like this:
    <html>
    ...
    <body>
    ...
    <img
    src="_wh/user/header_footer_files/¬
    logo100x50.png" />
    ...
    </body>
    </html>

    Notice the path used to reference logo100x50.png.

Sample user's header wh_resources/header.html as used in the following example:

-p wh-user-header¬
wh_resources/header.html
-p wh-user-footer¬
wh_resources/footer.html
-p wh-user-css¬
wh_resources/header_footer.css
-p wh-user-resources¬
wh_resources/header_footer_files
wh-user-resources Filename or absolute "file:" URI of a directory. URI schemes other than "file" (e.g. "http") are not supported for this parameter. A relative filename is relative to the current working directory. None. Specifies a user's resource directory which is to be recursively copied to output_directory/_wh/user/.

This directory typically contains image files referenced by the user's header, footer or CSS stylesheet.

Sample user's resource directory wh_resources/header_footer_files/ as used in the following example:

-p wh-user-header¬
wh_resources/header.html
-p wh-user-footer¬
wh_resources/footer.html
-p wh-user-css¬
wh_resources/header_footer.css
-p wh-user-resources¬
wh_resources/header_footer_files

System parameters

Such system parameters are not intended to be specified by the end-user. Such system parameters are documented here only because the end-user may see them referenced in some dialog boxes, in some configuration files or in the source code of the XSLT stylesheets.

Parameter Value Default Value Description
whc-index-basename URL basename '__tmp__index.whc_ndx' Basename of the Index XML input file of XMLmind Web Help Compiler.
whc-toc-basename URL basename '__tmp__toc.whc_toc' Basename of the TOC XML input file of XMLmind Web Help Compiler.

10.3. Parameters of the XSLT stylesheets used to convert an ebook specification to XSL-FO

Parameter Value Default Value Description
apply-css-styles 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specifies whether CSS styles specified in XHTML style attributes, style and link elements also apply to the XSL-FO file.

Depending on the context, the following CSS properties are converted to their equivalent XSL-FO attributes. The corresponding shorthand CSS properties are supported too. Any other CSS property is ignored. Generated content (:before, :after) is ignored too.

  • margin-top, margin-right, margin-bottom, margin-left.
  • padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, padding-left.
  • border-top-style, border-right-style, border-bottom-style, border-left-style.
  • border-top-width, border-right-width, border-bottom-width, border-left-width.
  • border-top-color, border-right-color, border-bottom-color, border-left-color.
  • background-color, background-image, background-repeat, background-position.
  • color.
  • font-family, font-style, font-weight, font-size.
  • text-decoration.
  • text-align.
  • text-indent.
  • vertical-align.
  • line-height.
  • list-style-type, list-style-position, list-style-image.
  • width, height.
  • caption-side.
  • border-spacing.

Note that styles specified this way supersede all the other ways to specify the presentation in the output file, that is, parameters like base-font-size or the presentation attributes (xsl:attribute-set) specified in the XSLT stylesheets that generate the XSL-FO file.

base-font-size Length in pt '10pt' The size of the font used for most body elements (paragraphs, tables, lists, etc). All the other font sizes are computed relatively to this font size.
external-href-after String ']' Appended after the external URL referenced by an a element. Ignored unless show-external-links='yes'.
external-href-before String ' [' Separates the text of an a element from the external URL it points to. Ignored unless show-external-links='yes'.
font-family One or more font families separated by commas 'serif' The font family used by default for all elements.
footer-center A mix of text and variables. See next column. Specifies the contents of the central part of a page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.

Default value:

two-sides even:: {{chapter-title}};;
two-sides body odd:: {{section1-title}};;
one-side:: {{chapter-title}}
footer-center-width String representing an integer larger than or equal to 1. '6' Specifies the proportional width of the central part of a page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
footer-left A mix of text and variables. See next column. Specifies the contents of the left part of a page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.

Default value:

two-sides even:: {{page-number}}
footer-left-width String representing an integer larger than or equal to 1. '2' Specifies the proportional width of the left part of a page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
footer-right A mix of text and variables. See next column. Specifies the contents of the right part of a page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.

Default value:

two-sides first||odd:: {{page-number}};;
one-side:: {{page-number}}
footer-right-width String representing an integer larger than or equal to 1. '2' Specifies the proportional width of the right part of a page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
footer-separator 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specifies whether an horizontal rule should be drawn above the page footer. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-center A mix of text and variables. '{{document-title}}' Specifies the contents of the central part of a page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-center-width String representing an integer larger than or equal to 1. '6' Specifies the proportional width of the central part of a page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-left A mix of text and variables. '' Specifies the contents of the left part of a page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-left-width String representing an integer larger than or equal to 1. '2' Specifies the proportional width of the left part of a page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-right A mix of text and variables. '' Specifies the contents of the right part of a page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-right-width String representing an integer larger than or equal to 1. '2' Specifies the proportional width of the right part of a page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
header-separator 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specifies whether an horizontal rule should be drawn below the page header. See Section 10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer.
hyphenate 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether words may be hyphenated.
justified 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether text (e.g. in paragraphs) should be justified (that is, flush left and right) or just left aligned (that is, flush left and ragged right).
index-column-count Positive integer. '2' The number of columns of index pages.
index-column-gap Length. '2em' The distance which separates columns in index pages.
note-icon-height Length '0.333in' The height of a note icon. See parameter use-note-icon.
note-icon-width Length '0.333in' The width of a note icon. See parameter use-note-icon.
page-orientation 'portrait' | 'landscape' 'portrait' The orientation of the printed page.
page-ref-after String ']' Appended after the page number pointed to by an a element. Ignored unless show-xref-page='yes'.
page-ref-before String ' [' Separates the text of an a element from the page number it points to. Ignored unless show-xref-page='yes'.
paper-type Allowed values are: 'Letter', 'Legal', 'Ledger', 'Tabloid', 'A0', 'A1', 'A2', 'A3', 'A4', 'A5', 'A6', 'A7', 'A8', 'A9', 'A10', 'B0', 'B1', 'B2', 'B3', 'B4', 'B5', 'B6', 'B7', 'B8', 'B9', 'B10', 'C0', 'C1', 'C2', 'C3', 'C4', 'C5', 'C6', 'C7', 'C8', 'C9', 'C10' (case-insensitive). 'A4' A convenient way to specify the size of the printed page.I

t is also possible to specify a custom paper type by ignoring the paper-type parameter and directly specifying the page-width and page-height parameters.

pdf-outline 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether PDF bookmarks should be generated.

Supported by the 'XEP', 'FOP' and 'AHF' XSL-FO processors. Not relevant, and thus ignored by 'XFC'.

show-external-links 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether the external URL referenced by an a element should be displayed right after the text contained by this element.

Example: show-external-links='yes' causes <a href="http://www.oasis-open.org/">Oasis</a> to be rendered as follows: Oasis [http://www.oasis-open.org/].

show-map-links 'no' | 'yes' 'yes' Specifies whether a numbered list should be generated for a XHTML map element, with one list item per area element.

A list item contains the link specified by the area element. No list items are generated for “dead areas” (area elements specifying no link at all).

show-xref-page 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether the page number corresponding to the internal link target referenced by an a element should be displayed right after the text contained by this element.

Example: show-xref-page='yes' causes <a href="#introduction">Introduction</a> to be rendered as follows: Introduction [3].

two-sided 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether the document should be printed double sided.
ul-li-bullets One or more bullet characters separated by spaces '&#x2022; &#x2013;' Specify which bullet character to use for an ul/li element. Additional characters are used for nested li elements.

For example, if ul-li-bullets="* - +", "*" will be used for ul/li elements, "-" will be used for ul/li elements contained in a ul/li element and "+" will be used for ul/li elements nested in two ul/li elements.

use-note-icon 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether an icon should be added to blockquote elements having a class attribute containing role-note, role-attention, role-caution, role-danger, role-fastpath, role-important, role-notice, role-remember, role-restriction, role-tip, role-trouble, role-warning.
use-note-label 'no' | 'yes' 'no' Specifies whether a title should be added to blockquote elements having a class attribute containing role-note, role-attention, role-caution, role-danger, role-fastpath, role-important, role-notice, role-remember, role-restriction, role-tip, role-trouble, role-warning.
watermark Allowed values are one or more of 'blank', 'title', 'toc', 'booklist', 'frontmatter', 'body', 'backmatter', 'index', 'all' separated by whitespace. 'all' Specifies which pages in the output document are to be given a watermark.

By default, all pages are given a watermark. If for example, parameter watermark is set to 'frontmatter body backmatter', then only the pages which are part of the front matter, body and back matter of the output document are given a watermark. The title page, TOC pages, etc, are not given a watermark.

No effect unless parameter watermark-image is specified.

watermark-image URI. If the URI is relative, it is relative to the current working directory of the user. No default. Specifies an image file which is to be used as a watermark in all the pages comprising the output document. See also parameter watermark.

Page layout parameters

Parameter Value Default Value Description
body-bottom-margin Length '0.5in' See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
body-top-margin Length '0.5in' See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
footer-height Length '0.4in' See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
header-height Length '0.4in' See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
page-bottom-margin Length '0.5in' See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
page-height Length. Example: '297mm'. Depends on parameter paper-type. The height of the printed page.
page-inner-margin Length If parameter two-sided is specified as 'yes' then '1.25in' otherwise '1in'. See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
page-outer-margin Length If parameter two-sided is specified as 'yes' then '0.75in' otherwise '1in'. See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
page-top-margin Length '0.5in' See Figure 10-1. Page areas below.
page-width Length. Example: '8.5in'. Depends on parameter paper-type. The width of the printed page.
Figure 10-1. Page areas
Page areas

System parameters

Such system parameters are not intended to be specified by the end-user. Such system parameters are documented here only because the end-user may see them referenced in some dialog boxes, in some configuration files or in the source code of the XSLT stylesheets.

Parameter Value Default Value Description
foProcessor 'FOP' | 'XEP' | 'XFC' |'AHF' Automatically set by the application hosting XMLmind Ebook Compiler The name of the XSL-FO processor used to convert the XSL-FO file generated by the XSLT stylesheets to the target output format.
img-src-path URI ending with '/' '' If this parameter is not empty and if the value of the src attribute is a relative URI, then this parameter is prepended to the value of the src attribute.

This low-level alternative to resolve-img-src='yes' also allows the generation of an XSL-FO file where all the references to graphic files are absolute URIs.

outputFormat String. Examples: 'ps', 'pdf', 'rtf', 'wml', 'docx', 'odt'. Automatically set by the application hosting XMLmind Ebook Compiler The file extension of the target output file.
resolve-a-href 'no' | 'yes' 'no' In the XSL-FO file, convert relative URIs contained in the href attribute of a elements to absolute URIs. This is done by resolving the relative URI against the base of the a element.
resolve-img-src 'no' | 'yes' 'no' In the XSL-FO file, convert relative URIs contained in the src attribute of img elements to absolute URIs. This is done by resolving the relative URI against the base of the img element.
screen-resolution Number 96.0 Screen resolution in DPI. Used to convert px to pt.
xsl-resources-directory URL 'resources/' resolved against the directory which contains the XSLT stylesheets. These XSLT stylesheets generate files which reference resources such as note icons. This parameter specifies the directory containing such resources.

10.3.1. Specifying a header or a footer

The header or the footer of a generated PDF, RTF, DOCX, etc, page has 3 columns.

Figure 10-2. Layout of a header
Layout of a header

The width of these columns may be specified using the header-left-width, header-center-width, header-right-width parameters for the header and the footer-left-width, footer-center-width, footer-right-width parameters for the footer.

The width of a column is specified as an integer which is larger than or equal to 1. This value is the proportional width of the column. For example, if the left column has a width equal to 2 and the right column has a width equal to 4, this simply means that the right column is twice (4/2 = 2) as wide as the left column.

The contents of these columns may be specified using the header-left, header-center, header-right parameters for the header and the footer-left, footer-center, footer-right parameters for the footer.

When header-left, header-center, header-right are all specified as the empty string, no header is generated. When footer-left, footer-center, footer-right are all specified as the empty string, no footer is generated.

The content of a column is basically a mix of text and variables. Example: "Page {{page-number}} of {{page-count}}".

Supported variables are:

{{document-title}}
The title of the document.
{{document-date}}
The publication date of the document.

The value of this variable comes from the meta element having any of the following name attributes: "dc.date", "dcterms.issued", "dcterms.modified", "dcterms.created", if found in the head element of the ebook specification. If the ebook specification does not contain such meta elements then the current date is used.

The value of the content attribute of the meta element is expected be something like YYYY-MM-DD, because it is parsed and then formatted according to the xml:lang of the ebook specification. For example, if content="2017-02-23", with xml:lang="en", it gives: "February 02, 2017" and with xml:lang="fr", it gives: "02 février 2017".

{{chapter-title}}
The title of the current part, chapter, appendices or appendix.
{{section1-title}}
The title of the current part, chapter, appendices or appendix or section 1.
{{division-title}}
The title of the current document divisions. All the document divisions are guaranteed to have a corresponding {{division-title}}. Even automatically generated divisions such as <toc/> or <index/> have a corresponding {{division-title}}.
{{page-number}}
Current page number within the current document part (front matter, body matter or back matter) .
{{page-count}}
Total number of pages of the current document part (front matter, body matter or back matter).
{{break}}
A line break.
{{image(URI)}}
An image having specified URI. A relative URI is resolved against the current working directory. Example: "{{image(artwork/logo.svg)}}".
{{page-sequence}}
Not for production use. Inserts in the header/footer the name of the current page sequence . Lets the author learn which name to use in a conditional header or footer. See below.

The default value of header-center is '{{document-title}}'. This means that each page of the generated PDF, RTF, etc, file will have the document title centered on its top. But what if you want the pages containing the Table of Contents have a "Contents" header? Is there a way to specify: use "Contents" for the pages containing the Table of Contents and use the title of the document for any other page?

This is done by specifying the following conditional value for parameter header-center: 'toc:: Contents;; {{document-title}}'.

A conditional value may contain one or more cases separated by ";;". Each case is tested against the page being generated. The first case which matches the page being generated is the one which is selected.

conditional_value --> case [ ";;" case ]*

case --> [ condition "::" ]* value

condition --> [ test_page_sequence ]?
              & [ S test_page_layout ]?
              & [ S test_page_side ]?

Let's suppose you also want the the pages containing the Index have a "Index" header. Specifying 'toc:: Contents;; {{document-title}};; index:: Index' won't work as expected because the second case (having no condition at all) matches any page, including the Index pages. You need to specify: 'toc:: Contents;; index:: Index;; {{document-title}}'.

Let's remember that variable {{division-title}} is substituted with the title of the current document division, including automatically generated document divisions such as toc and index.

Therefore our conditional value is better expressed as: 'toc:: index:: {{division-title}};; {{document-title}}'. Notice how a case may have several conditions. Suffice for any of these conditions to match the page being generated for the case to be selected.

Even better, specify 'toc||index:: {{division-title}};; {{document-title}}'. String "||" may be used to separate alternative values to be tested against the page being generated.

test_page_sequence --> page_sequence [ "||" page_sequence ]*

page_sequence --> "title" |
                  "toc" |
                  "booklist" |
                  "frontmatter" |
                  "body" |
                  "backmatter" |
                  "index"

It's not difficult to guess that the name of the page sequence corresponding to the Table of Contents is toc and that the name of the page sequence corresponding to the Index is index. However the simplest way to learn what is the name of the page sequence being generated is to reference variable {{page-sequence}} in the specification of a header or a footer.

Now let's suppose that we want to suppress the document title on the first page of a part, chapter or appendix. This is specified as follows: 'first body:: ;; toc||index:: {{division-title}};; {{document-title}}'.

For now, we have only described a condition about the page sequence being generated: TOC, Index, etc. In fact, a condition may test up to 3 facets of the page being generated:

  • The page sequence to which belongs the page being generated.
  • Whether the page being generated is part of a one-sided or a two-sided document.
  • Whether the page being generated is the first page of its sequence, has an odd page number or has an even page number.
test_page_layout --> page_layout [ "||" page_layout ]*

page_layout --> "two-sides" | "one-side"

test_page_side --> page_side [ "||" page_side ]*

page_side --> "first" | "odd" | "even"

When the document has one side, the only possible page side is odd. The other values, first and even, are not supported. For example, something like 'one-side body even:: {{chapter-title}};;' cannot generate any text.

The order of the tests is not significant. For example, 'first part||chapter||appendix' is equivalent to 'part||chapter||appendix first'.

Therefore 'first body:: ;; toc||index:: {{division-title}};; {{document-title}}' reads as follows:

  1. Use the empty string for the first page of a part, appendices, chapter or appendix.
  2. Use the document division title for the pages containing the Table of Contents. This title is "Table of Contents", but localized according to the main language of the book.
  3. Use the document division title title for the pages containing the Index. This title is "Index", but localized according to the main language of the book.
  4. For any other page, use the title of the book.

Everything explained in this section applies not only to the contents of a column of a header or footer, but also to the proportional width of a column of a header or footer. Example: -p footer-right-width "first||odd:: 4;; even:: 1".

Appendices

Appendix A. Embedding com.xmlmind.ebook.convert.Converter

Quick and easy embedding: embed com.xmlmind.ebookc.convert.Converter, the Java™ class which is used to implement the ebookc command-line utility.

Converter is the object which is at the core of the ebookc command-line utility. Its run method accepts the same string arguments as the ebookc command-line utility.

The full source code of the Embed1 sample is found in Embed1.java.

  1. Create the Converter.
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    StyleSheetCache cache = new StyleSheetCache();
    
    Console console = new Console() {
        public void showMessage(String message, MessageType messageType) {
            System.err.println(message);
        }
    };
    
    Converter converter = new Converter(cache, console);
    • StyleSheetCache is a simple cache for the ebookc XSLT 2.0 stylesheets. It is a thread-safe object which is intended to be shared by several Converters.

      Unlike StyleSheetCache, Converter is not thread-safe. Each thread must own its Converter. However, the run method of a Converter may be invoked several times.

    • Console is a very simple interface. Implementing this interface allows to do whatever you want with the messages reported by a Converter.
  2. Configure the Converter.
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    if (!converter.registerFOP(path("/opt/fop/fop"))) {
        return 1;
    }
    
    File xslDir = new File(path("../../../xsl"));
    System.setProperty("EBOOKC_XSL_DIR", xslDir.getAbsolutePath());
    • There are several methods which allows to register an XSL-FO processor with a Converter. From high-level ones to low-level ones, these methods are: registerFOP, registerXEP, registerAHF, registerXFC, registerExternalFOConverter, registerFOConverter.
    • A Converter can automatically determine where to find the directory containing all the ebookc XSLT 2.0 stylesheets. It assumes that ebookc.jar is in the class path of Java™. It also assumes that ebookc.jar is contained in a lib/ directory. The xsl/ directory is assumed to be a sibling of the lib/ directory.

      However, the situation may be very different in applications other than the ebookc command-line. That's why you may need to set the EBOOKC_XSL_DIR system property to the URL or absolute file path of the xsl/ directory containing the XSLT stylesheets.

  3. Invoke the run method.
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    String[] args = {
        "-v",
        "-p", "pdf-outline", "yes",
        inFile.getPath(),
        outFile.getPath()
    };
    
    return converter.run(args);

    The run method returns 0 if the conversion is successful and an integer greater than 0 otherwise. When the conversion fails, errors messages are displayed on the Console.

Compiling and executing the Embed1 sample

Compile the Embed1 sample by running ant in ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/html/embed/.

Execute the Embed1 sample by running "ant embed1" in ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/html/embed/. This will convert ebookc_install_dir/docsrc/manual/manual.ebook to ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/html/embed/manual.pdf, using Apache FOP.

Note that Embed1.java contains “hardwired filenames”. This means that this sample cannot be run from elsewhere than ebookc_install_dir/doc/manual/html/embed/ and that you'll almost certainly need to modify the source code in order to specify the actual location of the fop (fop.bat) script.

Index

A

  • adjustuserheadings, attribute of element book, 1
  • -ahf, option, 1
  • AHF, XSL-FO Processor, 1, 2
  • Antenna House Formatter. See AHF, XSL-FO Processor
  • Apache FOP. See FOP, XSL-FO processor
  • appendices, ebook element, 1
  • appendicestocdepth, attribute of element book, 1
  • appendix, ebook element, 1
  • appendixnumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • appendixtocdepth, attribute of element book, 1
  • apply-css-styles, parameter, 1

B

  • backmatter, ebook element, 1
  • base-font-size, parameter, 1
  • body, ebook element, 1
  • body-bottom-margin, parameter, 1
  • body-top-margin, parameter, 1
  • book, ebook element, 1
  • booklistlabels, attribute of element book, 1
  • break, page header/footer variable, 1

C

  • chapter, ebook element, 1
  • chapternumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • chapter-title, page header/footer variable, 1
  • chaptertocdepth, attribute of element book, 1
  • compatible, parameter, 1
  • Conditional processing, 1
  • content, ebook element, 1
  • cover-image, parameter, 1

D

  • "data-*", common attributes, 1
    • profiling, 1
  • data-external-resource, attribute, 1
  • data-resource, attribute, 1
  • data-xml-id-ref, another method to create links, 1, 2
  • debug, "proc." parameter, 1
  • division-title, page header/footer variable, 1
  • document-date, page header/footer variable, 1
  • document-title, page header/footer variable, 1
  • docx, output format, 1
  • -dryrun, option, 1

E

  • ebookc, command-line tool, 1, 2, 3, 4
  • ebookc.options, options file, 1, 2, 3
  • epub, output format, 1
  • epub-identifier, parameter, 1
  • equationnumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • -errout, option, 1
  • examplenumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • external-href-after, parameter, 1
  • external-href-before, parameter, 1
  • external-resource, value of attribute rel, 1
  • externalresourcebase, "proc." parameter, 1

F

  • -f, option, 1
  • figurenumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • fo, output format, 1
  • -foconverter, option, 1
  • font-family, parameter, 1
  • footer-center, parameter, 1, 2
  • footer-center-width, parameter, 1, 2
  • footer-height, parameter, 1
  • footer-left, parameter, 1, 2
  • footer-left-width, parameter, 1, 2
  • footer-right, parameter, 1, 2
  • footer-right-width, parameter, 1, 2
  • footer-separator, parameter, 1
  • footnotenumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • -fop, option, 1
  • FOP, XSL-FO processor, 1, 2, 3, 4
  • foProcessor, parameter, 1
  • -format, option, 1
  • frameset, output format, 1
  • framesetfilename, "proc." parameter, 1
  • frontmatter, ebook element, 1

H

  • head, ebook element, 1
  • headcommon, ebook element, 1
  • header-center, parameter, 1, 2
  • header-center-width, parameter, 1, 2
  • header-height, parameter, 1
  • header-left, parameter, 1, 2
  • header-left-width, parameter, 1, 2
  • header-right, parameter, 1, 2
  • header-right-width, parameter, 1, 2
  • header-separator, parameter, 1
  • headoverridedefault, attribute of element book, 1
  • href, common attribute, 1
  • html, output format, 1
  • html1, output format, 1
  • htmlcharset, "proc." parameter, 1
  • htmlextension, "proc." parameter, 1
  • hyphenate, parameter, 1

I

  • ids, attribute of element related, 1
  • -ignoreoptionsfile, option, 1
  • ignoreresources, "proc." parameter, 1
  • image(URI), page header/footer variable, 1
  • img-src-path, parameter, 1
  • index, ebook element, 1
  • index-column-count, parameter, 1
  • index-column-gap, parameter, 1
  • indexfilename, "proc." parameter, 1
  • "inode/directory", value of attribute type, 1

J

  • justified, parameter, 1

K

  • -keepfo, option, 1
  • -keepforesources, option, 1

L

  • labelseparator, attribute of element book, 1
  • loe, ebook element, 1
  • lof, ebook element, 1
  • lot, ebook element, 1
  • lox, ebook element, 1

M

  • MathJax, 1
  • MathML, 1

N

  • note-icon-height, parameter, 1
  • note-icon-width, parameter, 1

O

  • -o, option, 1
  • odt, output format, 1
  • omit-toc-root, parameter, 1, 2
  • -option, option, 1
  • outputFormat, parameter, 1
  • override, attribute of element head, 1

P

  • -p, option, 1
  • page-bottom-margin, parameter, 1
  • page-count, page header/footer variable, 1
  • page-height, parameter, 1
  • page-inner-margin, parameter, 1
  • pagename, common attribute, 1
  • pagenavigation, "proc." parameter, 1
  • page-number, page header/footer variable, 1
  • page-orientation, parameter, 1
  • page-outer-margin, parameter, 1
  • page-ref-after, parameter, 1
  • page-ref-before, parameter, 1
  • page-sequence, page header/footer variable, 1
  • page-top-margin, parameter, 1
  • page-width, parameter, 1
  • paper-type, parameter, 1
  • -param, option, 1
  • part, ebook element, 1
  • partnumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • parttocdepth, attribute of element book, 1
  • pdf, output format, 1
  • pdf-outline, parameter, 1
  • PostScript. See ps, output format
  • preventlonelyheading, attribute of element book, 1
  • "proc." parameters, 1
  • Processor, main component of XMLmind Ebook Compiler, 1, 2
  • "profile." parameters, 1. See also "data-*", common attributes, profiling
  • Profiling. See Conditional processing
  • ps, output format, 1

R

  • related, ebook element, 1
  • relation, attribute of element related, 1
  • RenderX XEP. See XEP, XSL-FO processor
  • reservedfilenames, "proc." parameter, 1
  • resolve-a-href, parameter, 1
  • resolve-img-src, parameter, 1
  • resource, value of attribute rel, 1, 2, 3
  • resourcedirname, "proc." parameter, 1
  • resourcedirnamefor, "proc." parameter, 1
  • role-attention, semantic class name, 1
  • role-caution, semantic class name, 1
  • role-danger, semantic class name, 1
  • role-ebook-page, semantic class name, 1
  • role-equation, semantic class name, 1
  • role-example, semantic class name, 1
  • role-fastpath, semantic class name, 1
  • role-footnote, semantic class name, 1
  • role-footnote-ref, semantic class name, 1
  • role-important, semantic class name, 1
  • role-index-term, semantic class name, 1
  • role-listing, semantic class name, 1
  • role-note, semantic class name, 1
  • role-notice, semantic class name, 1
  • role-remember, semantic class name, 1
  • role-restriction, semantic class name, 1
  • role-see, semantic class name, 1
  • role-see-also, semantic class name, 1
  • role-term, semantic class name, 1
  • role-tip, semantic class name, 1
  • role-trouble, semantic class name, 1
  • role-warning, semantic class name, 1
  • rtf, output format, 1

S

  • samepage, common attribute, 1
  • Schematron, 1
  • screen-resolution, parameter, 1
  • section, ebook element, 1
  • section1number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section1-title, page header/footer variable, 1
  • section2number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section3number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section4number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section5number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section6number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section7number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section8number, attribute of element book, 1
  • section9number, attribute of element book, 1
  • show-external-links, parameter, 1
  • show-map-links, parameter, 1
  • show-xref-page, parameter, 1
  • singlepage, "proc." parameter, 1
  • suppressindex, "proc." parameter, 1
  • suppresstoc, "proc." parameter, 1

T

  • -t, option, 1
  • tablenumber, attribute of element book, 1
  • title, ebook element, 1
  • titlelabels, attribute of element book, 1
  • toc, ebook element, 1
  • tocdepth, attribute of element book, 1
  • tocframefilename, "proc." parameter, 1
  • two-sided, parameter, 1

U

  • ul-li-bullets, parameter, 1
  • use-note-icon, parameter, 1
  • use-note-label, parameter, 1

V

  • -v, option, 1
  • validate, "proc." parameter, 1
  • -version, option, 1
  • -vv, option, 1
  • -vvv, option, 1

W

  • W3C XML schema, 1
  • watermark, parameter, 1
  • watermark-image, parameter, 1
  • webhelp, output format, 1
  • whc-index-basename, parameter, 1
  • wh-collapse-toc, parameter, 1
  • whc-toc-basename, parameter, 1
  • wh-index-numbers, parameter, 1
  • wh-jquery, parameter, 1
  • wh-jquery-css, parameter, 1
  • wh-jquery-custom-theme, parameter, 1
  • wh-jquery-theme, parameter, 1
  • wh-jquery-ui, parameter, 1
  • wh-layout, parameter, 1
  • wh-local-jquery, parameter, 1
  • wh-user-css, parameter, 1
  • wh-user-footer, parameter, 1
  • wh-user-header, parameter, 1
  • wh-user-resources, parameter, 1
  • wh-use-stemming, parameter, 1
  • wml, output format, 1

X

  • -xep, option, 1, 2
  • XEP, XSL-FO processor, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • -xfc, option, 1, 2
  • XFC, XSL-FO processor, 1, 2, 3
  • XInclude, 1
  • xml:base, common attribute, 1
  • xml:id, common attribute, 1
  • xml:lang, common attribute, 1, 2
  • XML catalog, 1
  • XMLmind Web Help Compiler, 1, 2
  • XMLmind XHTML Editor. See XMLmind XML Editor
  • XMLmind XML Editor, 1, 2, 3, 4
  • XMLmind XSL-FO Converter. See XFC, XSL-FO processor
  • xreflabels, attribute of element book, 1
  • xsl-resources-directory, parameter, 1
  • -xslt, option, 1
  • XSLT 2.0, 1

[1] Requires an XSL-FO processor like Apache FOP, RenderX XEP, Antenna House Formatter to be installed and registered with XMLmind Ebook Compiler (for example, using option -foconverter). We'll assume in this manual that you have downloaded and installed the distribution of XMLmind Ebook Compiler which includes Apache FOP.
[2] Requires XMLmind XSL-FO Converter to be installed and registered with XMLmind Ebook Compiler (using option -xfc).
[3] Preferably valid XHTML5, because ebookc anyway generates XHTML5 markup. “Plain HTML” cannot be parsed by ebookc.
[4] Requires an XSL-FO processor like Apache FOP, RenderX XEP, Antenna House Formatter to be installed and registered with XMLmind Ebook Compiler (for example, using option -foconverter). We'll assume in this manual that you have downloaded and installed the distribution of XMLmind Ebook Compiler which includes Apache FOP.
[5] Requires XMLmind XSL-FO Converter to be installed and registered with XMLmind Ebook Compiler (using option -xfc).
[6] That is, possibly containing the same elements as an HTML p (em, kbd, img, etc.)
[7] In that matter, the root book element is no different from part, chapter, appendix, section, etc.
[8] It's also possible to use @media XSL_FO_PROCESSOR_NAME rules, where XSL_FO_PROCESSOR_NAME is FOP (Apache FOP), XEP (RenderX XEP), AHF (Antenna House Formatter) or XFC (XMLmind XSL-FO Converter).
[9] A standard, intermediate page-layout format which is then used by XSL-FO processors like Apache FOP or XMLmind XSL-FO Converter to generate PDF, RTF, DOCX, etc.
[10] Other than an input HTML page of course.
[11] This limitation should be removed in a future version of XMLmind Ebook Compiler.

[12] Creating xi:include elements by hand is tedious and error prone. It's strongly recommended to use an XInclude-enabled editor like XMLmind XHTML Editor (or its superset, XMLmind XML Editor) to do that. With XMLmind XHTML Editor, creating an xi:include element is as easy as copying a reference to an element (Ctrl+Shift-C) from one page and then pasting it (Ctrl-V) into another page.

[13] Note that the validity of the source HTML pages is currently not checked by ebookc. It's only the validity of the ebook specification which is checked against W3C XML Schema ebookc_install_dir/schema/ebook.xsd.
[14] Even simpler, add the link to MathJax script to the headcommon element of your book.
[15] Written with kanji ko, meaning "child". The syllable ko is not generally found at the end of masculine names.
[16] Written with kanji ko, meaning "child". The syllable ko is not generally found at the end of masculine names.
[17] As if attribute samepage="true" were automatically added to the section element.
[18] An EPUB is a zip archive.
[19] In other words, when using option -f frameset, ebookc stops after its first pass.

[20] Requires an XSL-FO processor such as Apache FOP, RenderX XEP or Antenna House Formatter to have been installed and registered with XMLmind Ebook Compiler (for example, using option -foconverter).

[21] Requires XMLmind XSL-FO Converter to have been installed and registered with XMLmind Ebook Compiler (using option -xfc).